20. pulp [pʌlp] – пульпа EXERCISE 2. Read and translate the textorally with the dictionary.
Text1. STRUCTURE OF TEETH
Every tooth consists of a crown, a neck and one or more roots. The crown is the part visible in the mouth and the root is the part hidden inside the jaw. The junction of crown and root is called the neck and end of the root is called the apex. Every tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp.
Enamel is the outer covering of the crown and is the hardest substance in the body.
Cementum is the outer covering of the root and is similar in structure to bone. Cementum meets enamel at the neck of the tooth.
Dentine occupies the interior of the crown and root, and is very sensitive to pain.
Pulp. Unlike enamel, dentine and cementum, the pulp is purely soft tissue. It contains blood vessels and nerves, and occupies the centre of the dentine.
Supporting Structures. Every tooth is insert into the jaw by its root. The part of the jaw containing the teeth is known as the alveolar process and is covered with a soft tissue called gum. The jaw bones consist of a dense outer layer known as compact bone and a softer interior called spongy bone.
A tooth is attached to its socket in the jaw by a soft fibrous tissue called the periodontalmembrane.
Альвеолярный отросток покрыт мягкой тканью, называемой десна.
Периодонтальная мембрана действует как амортизатор.
EXERCISE 8.Read and learn the following words:
rootcanal[ru:t kəˈnæl] – корневой канал
bite[baɪt] - кусать
chew [tʃu:] - жевать
masticate [ˈmæstɪkeɪt] - жевать
teethe [ti:ð]- прорезываться
incisor[ɪnˈsaɪzə] - резец
cuspid[ˈkʌspɪd] - клык
canine[.ˈkeɪnaɪn] - клык
eye-tooth[aɪ tu:θ] – глазной зуб
molar[ˈməulə] – моляр, коренной зуб
wisdomtooth [ˈwɪzdəm] -зуб мудрости
digestion[dɪˈdʒestʃən] - пищеварение
jaw[dʒɔ:] - челюсть
set[set] - ряд зубов
covering [ˈkʌvərɪŋ]- покрытие
Teeth are very important bony organs for our digestion. By means of them we bite and masticate food.
A tooth consists of three parts: the root, the neck and the crown. The physical support of each tooth is the alveolar bone. The tooth has a hard outer covering which surrounds the central pulp cavity. This protective covering consists of a very firm hard substance, enamel. The inner tissue of the tooth is dentine. It is a softer and less resistant material than the enamel. When the enamel is broken, the dentine soon suffers.
There are blood vessels and nerves in our teeth by means of which the feeding and growing of them take place.
Depending on the form and function our teeth are divided into four groups. They are incisors, cuspids, bicuspids and molars.
The teeth have various forms of the crown. They may be one-root, two-root and three-root teeth.
During our life we have two sets of teeth. The first teething begins at 6 months and lasts till the age of two and a half years. Little children have 20 temporary teeth. These teeth are not strong and their life time is only several years.
The second teething begins at 6 years and is over by 24. An adult person has 32 permanent teeth. The clinical formula of teeth is as follows: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 bicuspids and ? molars.
EXERCISE 9.Read and learn following combination of words:
outer and inner tissue – внешние и внутренние ткани
feeding and growing – кормление и рост
temporary teeth – молочные зубы
permanentteeth – постоянные зубы
adultperson– взрослый человек
seeadentist– визит к дантисту
EXERCISE 10. Give the English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:
Верхняя челюсть, нижняя челюсть, молочные зубы, постоянные зубы, резец, клык, пульпа, верхнее покрытие - это эмаль, не кусай орехи зубами, корень зуба, разная форма коронок, две смены зубов, зуб мудрости. EXERCISE 11.Answer the questions:
1. What do we do by means of our teeth?
2. What parts does a tooth consist of?
3. What is the physical support of each tooth?
4. What does the protective covering consist of?
5. What is the inner tissue of the tooth?
6. What function do blood vessels and nerves fulfill in our teeth?
EXERCISE 12.Read the text about mouth hygiene.
You must keep your mouth, gums and teeth in healthy condition. Brush your gums and teeth every morning and rinse your mouth cavity after every meal. Don't use metal things to clean your teeth, because it'll ruin the teeth enamel. Examine your teeth twice a year. Use food which you must chew and newer crack nuts with teeth.
Английский язык. English in dentistry : учебник для студентов стоматологических факультетов медицинских вузов / Под ред. Л.Ю. Берзеговой. - 2009. - 272 с.
EXERCISE19.Translate the following word combinations into Russian before reading the text:
due to poor oral hygiene
diseases may run an acute course
to control dental caries
early treatment of carious lesions
if caries remains untreated
microorganisms can gain entrance into the pulp
mortification and removal of the pulp tissue
Text4. DISEASES OF THE TEETH.
Diseases of the teeth develop primarily due to poor oral hygiene but the general state of health is also of some importance. Depending on the state of the whole body diseases of the teeth may run a more acute course and may quickly involve a number of teeth.
Dental caries (tooth decay) and pulpitis are probably the most common of all diseases of the highly developed countries. All groups of population can suffer from tooth decay.
The main causes of dental caries are poor oral hygiene, the character of nutrition (high consumption of sweets), the temperature of the food and physiological state of the human body. The disease begins with decalcification of the enamel and ends in destruction of the hard dental tissues. Carious lesions usually occur in those parts of the teeth that cannot be well cleaned by a toothbrush, the molars being most frequently affected.
If caries is left untreated microorganisms can gain entrance into the pulp and cause its inflammation (pulpitis). During pulpitis teeth are sensitive to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuli. Spontaneous severe pains are the most characteristic symptom of pulpitis. The pains may spread over the jaw, ear or temple. They may be very severe and last for a long time. Pulpitis may result in gangrene of the pulp and its decomposition.
The treatment of pulpitis must consist in mortification and removal of the pulp tissue and filling the tooth.
EXERCISE 21. Give the English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:
в зависимости от,
наиболее распространенное заболевание,
EXERCISE 22.Find the synonyms to the following words in the text:
intake, caries, because of, a wide-spread disease, to get into the pulp, first of all, to start, to develop.
EXERCISE 23.Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the active vocabulary:
1. Caries, pulpitis and periodontitis are….. of the mouth.
2. The patient was still in bed because his …… was bad.
3. You have three teeth with ….. .
4. Diseases of the teeth ..... due to poor oral hygiene.
5. Pulpitis is ….. by microorganisms that gain entrance to the pulp.
6. In case of ….. you should see a dentist immediately.
7. Untreated caries may ..... pulpitis.
8. I ….. a severe toothache and had to see a dentist.