4. off-centre loading – внецентренная нагрузка 5. reserve capacity – резервная мощность 6. reversal switches – переключатели с реверсом
17. Ниже даны ключевые сочетания, выражающие основной смысл каждого абзаца. Соответствует ли порядок их расположения расположению абзацев?
1. A wide range of accessories 2. various level of quality 3. the tonnage required 4. the maximum system pressures 5. the effect of the stroke of the action of the machine 6. the form of the presses
18. Расположите их в нужном порядке, используйте их для передачи содержания на английском языке, дополнив необходимыми свединиями из текста.
19. В пользу каких прессов идёт сравнение в каждом случае, каковы прогнозы применения гидравлических прессов?
20. Составьте реферативную аннотацию текста.
21. Слова для активизации: assembly operation, accessories, broaching, brake, blank, bearing, bed, damping die, extruding, fuel pump, forming, housing, lubricate, leakage, maintenance, moulding, open gap press, punch, ram, reverse, relief valve, slide, set up, stamp out, shear, trim.
Глава 4. AUTOMATION IN THE PRESS SHOP 1.Повторителексику, значениенезнакомыхсловнайдитевсловаре:
Arm, assembly, arrangement, complete dimension, ensure, be engaged in, exist, in order to, link (v), to meet the requirements, multiple, provide, run (v), set, sequence, suit, supply, total.
Произнесите данные слова, какие префиксы участвуют в их образовании? Переведите.
Increase, intermediate, interlock, interstage, replace, reset.
Задания к тексту.
1.Познакомьтесь с основным содержанием текста, переведя вступление.
2. Прочитайте текст А и выполните задания, данные после предъявления текста.
Mechanization is one of the methods to increase labour productivity. Its basis is replacement of manual labour by mechanisms and machines. There is partial and complex mechanization. Partial mechanization does not involve complete elimination of manual labour. When mechanization is complex, manual job is limited only to the operation of machine tools. Automatic control is the control of machines or system by means of special devices which comprise a control system. The control system operates in accordance with a predetermined program.
1.This article divides into two parts. The first part covers existing presses, and in most cases existing tooling to form an automated line of three or four individual open-fronted presses. Such a line would be linked together by a single independently driven unit that would transfer the work from one press to another with intermediate stations, and, where required, turnover stations for reversing the presentation of the pressing.
2. Such an arrangement would have the following advantages:
1) low capital investment if existing presses are suitable;
2) existing tooling can be used or modified for use;
3) saving in labour;
4) toll setting is simple with easy access to the front of presses;
5) transfer system does not require setting on tool change, only clamper arns being re-set or replaced.
6) interstage storage and movement are eliminated.
3. The transfer system is an independent unit driven by an electric motor which, by means of a system of cams, reciprocates a horizontal bar running inside the press gap to the rear of the press tools. In addition to horizontal traverse, a vertical movement to place components in location on tool and lift back after the operation is provided. During the pressing operation the feed bar (1) is at rest, the sequence of operations being: horizontal feed of half total pitch (2) to position above the component to be fed; vertical down movement to pick and return through starting position and further half-feed to next tool with a vertical movement to place in die and release, before return to starting position when presses are given a signal to perform the pressing operation.
4. Methods of pick-up by clamper arm are either vacuum or magnetic and either can be quickly set to suit individual tool height. Idle stations compensate for feed-height variations and also provide turn-over positions to invert components where this is necessary. At the first station, blanks are provided from a synchronized magazine type blank feeder (3). All machines are electrically interlocked with feeder and necessary safety devices to ensure full protection of press, tooling and components.
5. The following case history illustrates the experience of a contract press shop manufacture who progressed from single press operation with multiple labour, to automation.
AUTOMATION AT KUNIMOTO INDUSTRY Co.
6. This installation includes the industrial robot Aida, Line Paser (THL type) which was introduced a year ago to make presswork automatic. The Kunimoto factory is typically engaged in small-quantity production of a large variety of parts. Lots produced range from 50 to 10 000 and that of main products from 50 to 5000. product shape varies widely in order to meet the requirements of the different types of motor cycle manufactured by Kunimoto; dimensions ranging from 100mm x 150mm to 300mm x 400mm, and weights from 300g to 1000g.
7. It demanded that automated system provided, should cater for at least three or four changes a day, and that these should be completed within 10 minutes/line. However, the automated system had to be of the general purpose type. Existing dies, after slight modification were to be used, as were supplied dies. As for the production of new sort and dies, the die production cost should be low as die-life was short and the production times had to be reduced. It was planned to increase production by 30% in view of the presswork cost reduction.
In implementing (4) this automation system the most important concern is that is should be operated without difficulty. In addition, turning to the automated system was not to mean halting of any press factory function. This made it possible to limit the commissioning period of the new press factory to two months, and conduct modifications of dies, set-up procedures for reducing preparation times and produce the necessary jigs, while acquainting the workers with the operation of the new automation system during the limited period.
Notes: 1. feed bar – шагающая балка
2. feed of half total pitch to position above the component –подача на высоте 0.5 общей высоты над деталью
3. synchronized magazine type blank feeder – подающее устройство с магазином, синхронизированное с работой пресса
4. In implementing – в довершение.
3. Переведите 1 и 2 абзацы. Определите функцию слова ‘would’.
9. Переведите следующий раздел (6,7 абз.) письменно, 8 абз. устно. Какую новую информацию вы получили?
10. Прочитайте текст B, найдите ответы на следующие вопросы:
1) How many press lines does the automation system consist of?
2) What is the basis for instantaneous preparation?
3) What adjustment widened the application of dies and automated production?
1. After study of automation systems meeting these requirements, Kunimoto decided to use Aida’s industrial robot Line Pacer (THL type). The automation system consists of three press lines – one 2-press line, one 3-press line and one 4-press line. Eleven pin clutch presses previoulsy used were eliminated and nine Aida 80-ton hi-flex presses installed to increase press capabilities and improve product quality.
2. Four-press line. Blank material is stacked in the material-feeding device and each workpiece is transferred to the position designed. The Line Pacer automatically operates the four presses simultaneously. The feed amount of the Line Pacer was set at 900mm and, as a result, the pitch between the presses became 1800mm. The main driving unit is provided on the right hand section of the four presses. Drive is transmitted to each unit on each presses as to operate the four presses automatically and simultaneously. The front of each press is fully open, and it is easy to replace dies and conduct maintenance work on the driving device.
3.Ten minutes line had been allocated for changes in process, but this was reduced to five minutes. Almost four changes in process must be made every day.
4. Normally, single preparation is possible with this robot. Kunitake changed the die production method, and introduction a method for easier replacement of blank material by improving the material feeding device to shorten the time required for preparations. This is the basis for the instantaneous preparation which is more effective than the single preparation, in which “a preparation for one press is conducted within one minute.”
5. All dies at Kunimoto are standard and can be replaced instantaneously with the die clamper. The height at which they are mounted on the presses are also standardized and slide adjustment is not required. In the event of dies differing in height having to be used, the set value is written on the preparation card.
6. Efforts were made to standardize dies so that the feed line height in presswork could be unified. However, because of their structure, their were some dies for which the feed line height had to be changed. This problem was solved because the intermediate position-determining stage between the presses absorbs the differences in height of the feed line of the right and left press. With this adjustment, production is automated and application to dies is widened. Adjustments of clamper and product during work piece changes can be conducted by ''inching'' the robot. This contributes greatly to the reduction in preparation time.
7. Work speed. The current work speed of the presses, is 18 strokes/min. Compared with manual production, the installation of robots has stabilized the level of production and increased production by 40%.During the times when the press speed has been reduced to handle presswork of complicated shape, the robot is able to track the slower speed.
8. ''Operability''. The most favorable characteristic of the system is its easy ''operability''. Operations consist of inching, process and these are controlled by simply pushing the respective button. As the system drives four presses with a single driving unit, there is no necessity for a complicated interlocking circuit.
2. Составьте реферативную аннотацию статьи о роботах.
3. Просмотрев текст C, найдите информацию об основных особенностях прессового производства без участия людей.
UNIMANNED PREESSNG FAGILITY
Having discussed the simpler form of automation we can move on to the other extreme, which approaches the ideal of an unmanned pressing facility. In addition to savings in operator lab our there are considerable gains to be made by reducing the non-productive time of equipment by automating the actual tool-changing function. The current trend is towards smaller batch quantities required at specific times to meet manufacturing schedules and hold inventory of parts to a minimum. This entails more frequent tool-change and greater flexibility of manufacture.
Largely automatic and micro-processor-synchronized, die replacement commonly completed in three to six minutes, and with the addition of further automation all dies and tooling could be changed completely in as little as 100 sec.
The now press is programmed for automatic slide adjustment to achieve correct shut height. Die clamping and unclamping are automatic. An automatically operated system for the slide adjustment mechanism returns the dies to a ''home'' position for clamping and unclamping. During die changeover. Conventional presses usually have a micro-inching mode, but the drive mechanism is simply a separate motor and the mode must be controlled manually.
Another feature is the configuration of the feed bar – an aluminium bar associated with the tooling that has grip fingers to move the blanks from station to station in the transfer sequence.
Some savings in material may be possible, but the main cost reductions must be in lab our by the reduction of setting times and production of more parts in a given time.
1. micro-inching mode-минимальный ход перемещения
13. Слова для активизации: bar, cam, clamper arm, coil, idle, jig, multiple-ram press, pick up, traverse, open-fronted presses, reciprocate, station, stack.
absorber – обратное
accessories – прибор, приспособление
adjustment - регулировка
angle bender – гибочная машина ( штамп)
Backward extrusion - обратное выдавливание
bar – 1)балка 2)рабочий орган
bar stock - материал для стержня
batch – партия
backstop – заданий упор
bearing – подшипник
bed – станина
bending – гибка
blank – листовая заготовка
blanking tonnage – усилие при вырубки
bonding – сцепление
broach – разведка, протяжка
Cam – кривошип
cast iron – чугун
cartridge – втулка, патрон
corrugated – рифленый
clamp – зажим, крепить
clamper arm – захватывающее устройство
clutch – муфты включения
cluster - блок
closed loop control system – замкнутая система управления
curtain guarding – защитное устройство по тех. Безопасности
coin – чеканить
complete – конкурировать
cold – forming operation – операция холодной штамповки
cold – forming machine – профилировочный стан
computer aided design – система автоматического проектирования(САПР)
press brake-гибочная машина
double-acting lead press - винтовой пресс двойного действия
drawing press - вытяжной пресс
exturision press - пресс для выдавливания
flying out off press - аллигаторные ножницы
fly press - фрикционный пресс
flywheel driven double and triple acting drawing press - вытяжной пресс двойного или тройного действия с маховичным приводом
heavy duty press - пресс для больших технологических нагрузок
knucle-action press - коленный пресс
Radii-мн.ч.от radius - радиус
ram - ползун(пресса),баба
ramming - вдавливание
reciprocate - обеспечивать,передавать,двигаться взад и вп.
roll-forming - роликовая формовка
Seamless tube - бесшовная труба
set up - наладка,установка
shallow draw work - работа по неглубокой вытяжке
shaping - формовка
shear - обрезка
shimming - регулировка при помощи тонких прокладок
shock adsorber - амортизатор
setting - установка
light duty presses - прессы для малых технологических нагрузок
light tonnage machine - пресс малого усилия
multiple ram press - многоплунжерный пресс
IIC (??) turret press - вырубной пресс с программным управлением
open-fronted press - пресс с передним доступом
open-gap press - пресс с открытым типом станины
pin clutch press - механический пресс с муфтой с поворотной шпонкой
single acting mechanical press - механический пресс двойного действия
small and medium tonnage press - прессы среднего и малого усилия
turret punch press - пробивной пресс с револьверной головкой
reverse - давать обратный ход
roller - ролик,вал,каток,
roll extursion - прокатка выдавливанием
runout - движение по инерции
shaft - вал,шпиндель,ось
sheet metal manufacturing industry - технология листовой штамповки
sizing - колибровка
slide gib - направляющая
sliding bolster - подштамповая плита
slide - ползун,скользить
slit - резать узкими полосками
slug - заготовка
smash a die - разрушать штамп
standby - запасной
stack - складывать
tearing - разрыв
telescopic punch - телескопический пуансон
tolerance - допуск
tonnage - усилие
tractrix cupping die - штамп для выдавливания
upset - высадка
valve - клапан
relief valve - спускной клапан
starting stock - первичный материал
station - зел, положение
straightening - выпрямление
strain gauge - датчик деформации
strain rata - скорость деформации
stock material - сырьё
strip - полоска,лента
traverse - перекладина,перемещать
trial - испытание
trim - обрезать заусенец
turnover - опрокидывать
turret punch - револьверная головка прессов для пробивки и высечки
versatility – многосторонность
Для ознакомительного чтения
SpecialForgingEquipment Several specialized types of forging equipment have been
developed to extend the capabilities of conventional equipment
and processes. Of the specialized forging equipment, the mul-
tiple- ram press and the forging machine (upsetter) of enlarged
capacity are of particular interest in aerospace forging applications.
The production of hollow, “flashless” forgings, for use in the
manufacture of valve bodies, hydraulic cylinders, seamless tubes,
and pressure vessels, can be accomplished in a hydraulic press with
multiple rams. The rams converge on the workpiece from both
vertical and horizontal planes, alternately or in combination
, and achieve die filling by displacement of metal outward from a central cavity developed by one or more of the ram punches. The absence of conventional flash at the parting line of cored cylinders is of major importance in avoiding stress-corossion cracking of forging alloys.
Forging Machines (Upsetters)
A forging machines, or upsetter, is a horizontal, double-acting
mechanical press that is capable of gathering, or upsetting, metal into a set of dies. Upsetters were developed originally for the hot heading of bolts and similar shapes, but their application has been extended to include production of
rings, and other configurations. Upsetters are most economical
for high-quantity runs.
High-velocity Forging(HVF) machines.
High-velocity or high-energy-rate forging machines develop high striking energies by driving relatively lightweight rams at very high velocities. One of the smaller machines, with a ram weight of only 500 lb and a 12-in. stroke, develops
40,000 ft-lb of energy.
Ram velocity, and the strain rate associated with a given ram velocity, and the strain rate associated with a given ram velocity, can be accurately reproduced. Because forging is completed in a fraction of a second, the temperature of the workpiece does not decrease during the forging cycle. Current types of
equipment operate best when producing forging that are sum-metrical and weigh less then 50 lb.
An effective method for producing ring forgings of various sizes and contours with wrought structure and excellent metallurgical properties, and without welding, is provided by the ring roller, or ring rolling mill. The mills can produce rings ranging from 12 to more than 200 in. in outside diameter and weighing up to 150 tons. Ring heights, or face widths, range from about 2 to 120 in. Aluminum alloys, steel, titanium alloys, and heat-resisting alloys are processed in these mills.
Answer the questions:
1. What king of forging equipment is of particular interest in aerospace forging applications?
2. What forgings can be accomplished in a hydraulic press with multiple rams?
3. What is a forging machine or upsetter capable to do?