Раздел 2.2 показывает виды сценариев (Развитый, Усеченный, Декларативный). Участники были активны при развитии сценариев разных видов на основании всех Идеалов.
Раздел 2.3 показывает динамические элементы, встречающиеся в дискуссии, обеспечивающие её развитие (Тематический сдвиг, Вызов, Разработка, Потеря фокуса, Поддержка). Также производится анализ взаимодействия в обоих форумах по-отдельности, который выявляет высокую степень связности в обоих форумах.
Проведенный анализ позволяет оценить общественную дискуссию как целостный текст. Жанровая специфика текста форума заключается в том, что текст состоит из высказываний нескольких участников, при этом один из них – модератор, который ведет дискуссию и дает идеологические ориентиры для того, чтобы представители разных идеологий могли высказать свое мнение. Отдельные высказывания участников не имеют смысла вне контекста всего текста форума, что говорит о его связности и цельности. Таким образом, смысл текста форума можно определить, как опыт, который человек обретает, воспринимая текст как одно целое.
В нашей работе определение Тем и Идеалов позволяет уточнить положения, связанные с теорией текста. Термин «Тема» сочетает в себе многие понятия: конвенциональное знание, фрейм, стереотипические ситуации, базовое знание и ценности. Темы являются обязательным условием взаимопонимания и возможности диалога. Термин Идеал (основанный на понимании «фреймов» Ч. Филлмора, уточняющий понятия «когнитивные модели» и «ментальные пространства») обозначает идеальное положение вещей, где ответственность за указанные действия распределена между агентами. Он помогает структурировать ценностные суждения говорящих и разделить их на несколько Идеологий (в нашем случае их 3). Напомним, что Темы являются непререкаемой основой для формирования мнения (the just-so judgments), а Идеалы существуют как суждения-долженствования (the should-be judgments). Разделение этих двух уровней смысла текста дискуссии позволяет описать механизм сосуществования разнообразных позиций в рамках одной языковой культуры. Тематический императив маркирован единообразно в высказываниях участников, которые по-разному выражают свое отношение к тому, как данный императив должен реализовываться в обсуждаемой ситуативной модели.
В нашем исследовании аналитический метод помогает объяснить, как смысл формируется в ходе дискуссии. Все высказывания участников объединяют Тема 1 или 2, определенные группы участников объединяют Идеалы (принадлежность высказывания к тому или иному Идеалу мы определяем через маркеры) в рамках Тем, а на уровне Сценариев (проблемных ситуаций) мы видим, как Идеалы разных участников сталкиваются, как участники форума продолжают разрабатывать Сценарии, упомянутые ранее, формулируют новые проблемы и пути решения. Таким образом, когда мы проводим анализ взаимодействия между участниками, становится ясно, каким образом высказывания между собой связаны, какие конкретные маркеры повторяются в разных высказываниях, и как Сценарий развивается в ходе дискуссии разными участниками – всё это формирует смысл дискуссии.
Приведенный анализ показывает, что динамика общественной дискуссии связана с наличием конфликта между ценностными моделями различных уровней. Участники дискуссии вовлечены в обсуждение имеющихся противоречий. При этом они могут приходить к условному согласию на уровне Сценариев.
Хотя мы рассмотрели только один из многих видов общественной дискуссии, на примере двух форумов можно видеть, что выявление маркеров Идеалов (или Идеологических моделей) и реконструкция ценностных суждений служит надежным инструментом для анализа взаимодействий между участниками дискуссии. Этот инструмент позволяет давать характеристику диалога как целостного текста, который в большей или меньшей степени удовлетворяет имеющуюся у участников потребность в создании коллективного видения проблемной ситуации.
Также выявление маркеров на трех уровнях (Темы, Идеалы, Сценарии) может помочь модераторам эффективнее управлять дискуссией. Если проанализировать то, как модераторы справлялись со своей ролью в обоих форумах, можно сказать, что в Форуме № 2 модератору удавалось более эффективно направлять дискуссию. В Форуме № 1 у модератора не всегда получалось сменить Идеологическую модель, на основании которой велась дискуссия, что привело к преобладанию Идеала 1.1 в самом начале дискуссии. Также он не всегда мог четко представить ту или иную позицию из брошюры. В отличие от него, модератор в Форуме № 2 постоянно помогал участникам переключиться на другой Идеал, таким образом помогая дискуссии развиваться.
На данный момент, работ, которые рассматривают форумы как единый текст, состоящий из высказываний разных участников, не так много. Поэтому проведенное исследование открывает новые перспективы исследования.
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Транскрипт форума по вопросам иммиграции в Джорждтауне.
-- so they can plan. That sound familiar to anybody? Okay. Subsidize local governments who aids large numbers of immigrants. Make immigrants, adults and children, learn to speak English. So what are some of the tradeoffs or the flipsides or the drawbacks of this? One, we may lose our tradition of tolerance. We English speaking -- onl-only -- English-only initiatives can create prejudice against immigrants. Immigrants always cling to their home country, but their children continue to adopt America's culture. And immigrants keep this nation vibrant and adaptable. That's the approach one, this notion of we're losing our identity. Approach two is along the lines of this is what made this country great. We are a nation of immigrants. This is-this is-this is a piece -- this is the most important piece of our heritage. Immigration built America. Short-term costs -- whatever the long run, this notion that, as we continue to infuse this country with immigrants, we learn, we grow, and we expand. We cannot abandon refugees, who, like our forefathers, seek freedom. We need every-we must welcome everybody. What do we need to do? Admit more refugees. Give refugees a better chance to prove persecution. Expand family-sponsored immigration. Allow more skilled workers into this country. And negotiate a new immigration policy with Mexico. Dangers, drawbacks. Without limits, the life by which the America -- could capsize, drowning us all. We can't take them all. Can't take them all, folks. Caring for and educating all of th-these newcomers costs American taxpayers. We're seeing it right now. Americans in low wages suffer. Citizen's wages can't go up, because immigrants -- they work for less. And Americans even lose jobs to immigrant competitors. And the last approach is one of -- you know, all of this is great, but we need to look inward first. We need to take care of our own. So we need to limit the new -- the-the number of newcomers. Their arrival impacts those who are already here. Immigration costs the American citizens. Competition from immigrants keeps wages down and even takes away from Americans. What do we need to do? Admit fewer immigrants. Keep out immigrants who would take jobs from Americans. Focus immigration on the skilled workers, the skills that we need. Help out taxpayers and communities where immigrants settle. Stop illegal immigration. Dangers and the flipsides. Immigrants get blamed for problems they don't cause. People will have no safe haven from tyranny. There will be no workers to do the unskilled jobs Americans refuse to accept. And immigrants are a criti-critical part of this economy. We're going to work through all of them as we go through the -- as we go through the night. And so are we ready to go? All right. To get the evening started -- I mean, I want you to kind of -- I mean, on th-on the personal side, has anybody here experienced, uh, some of the complexities or some of the issues around immigration personally? What got you here today, besides a call at five o'clock last night that said, "Hey, what are you doing tonight, you know?"[Cross talk]
Why are you here? How has immigration i-you know, impacted you?
Well, I see -- I want to speak to that. I go to the post office every day to pick up the Wall Street Journal. And, uh, there are a number of immigrants that pass through the door. And when I go through the door, I say, "Good morning," and they say, "Good morning." And I find that they're responsive to me. And, uh, I feel that, uh, you know, I welcome them. And they can be who they want to be, and I can be who I want to be.
I'm here because I think that, uh, the issue of immigration is particularly, um, s-salient in this community that has, uh, a growing, uh, population of Hispanic and now Haitian immigrants, uh, some documented and some undocumented. And as a community, Georgetown is -- has been, for-for several years now, struggling with what do we do. How do we -- uh, how do we treat these people? Do we welcome them in? Do we keep them out? Uh, they're-they're an important part of the economy. Where do they live? How do we take care of them? Uh, and there are lots of justice issues involved with the immigrant population and their relationship to the mainline society. Uh, important issue. That's why I'm here.
I feel there needs to be, uh, control, that there needs to be some documentation. And yes, we welcome all immigrants. And I have no problem with them, except that I think the town, like you said -- you cannot take everybody's problems. There's a lot of people in third-world countries that need help. They're persecuted. But we cannot take on everybody's problem. We need to devise a plan so that we can assimilate these people into our societies and so it will not be a big burden on the taxpayers. We need to get them to be American citizens so that they can help take s-uh, charge of some of their -- you know, what -- the programs that you establish for them, that they can also be paying taxpayers, and they can cover some of these fees. Like Georgetown -- Georgetown has not the infrastructure to really accommodate the number of, uh, immigrants that they have in Georgetown, like the housing problem. They have the sewerage and the water problems. And, you know, the taxpayers are the ones that are bearing the brunt of all of these problems. So I think the town needs to sit down and devise a plan. Are you going to just run the town over with immigrants that you cannot handle, or are you going to devise a plan that will get these people here? If you're going to bring them here, have something to teach them, how to live within your society. But don't, uh, get rid of the American way. I think America needs a basic plan. And we change our infrastructure, our values, to suit every immigrant that come here. We lose our heritage. So I feel that we need to stick to a basic plan. When they come, they can still have their cultures or whatever their ideals are, but they still should be, uh, taught to assimilate within the American culture, too.
Well, I'll talk next. Um, I think, um, if you th-really think about it, America's a melting pot. I remember is -- in elementary school and junior-high school, studying about all the immigrants that came to America. My grandfather immigrated from Germany in 1914. So I'm a second generation. Um, and I'm one of the few people that's not a fifth- or sixth- or seventh-generation Georgetown-Georgetown native, it seems like. But this is just another wave. It just happens that it's mostly Hispanic instead of, um, Irish or German or English. And we have -- I guess it's part of growing older. It just seems newer to us, so --
One of-one of the questions that you had asked when you brought it up was have-have we been impacted by it. And I-I don't know if I w-can say I certainly b-I've been impacted by it one way or the other. But everything I have found -- and I-I've always gotten -- to me, uh, I find it interesting and fun, because I -- as we spoke earlier at-at dinner, I used to travel. That's what I used to do for a living. So I spent a lot of time in New York City. And you talk about the enclaves. Well, to me, that was always something good, because I -- every day, I found something else interesting to eat. Uh, so I-I look at it as, you know, it's so-it's -- as something that should benefit us, you know, because of-of the different cultures, what they can bring to you. And I used to travel overseas, too, in my business. So, you know, I've been an outsider there. And, uh, like my wife had just said, I'm only a second generation. My grandfather came over from England, and both my mother's parents were French Canadian. So, you know, I'm a hodgepodge myself.
All right. Thanks. First approach. Remember, this is the one about we're losing our identity too much. You know, the folks that, uh -- you know, if-if they don't speak English, then-then we lose our-our heritage. We lose our language. You know, they stay in their own enclaves. They don't assimilate. So we need to start thinking about our identity, this notion of we need to admit fewer. We need to warn the local communities. I mean, did Georgetown ever get a heads up that life would change in -- by like 40 percent demographics in 10 years? The notion that when this is going to happen, that-that these communities become subsidized -- all right -- that-that you help this community out. And then this notion of folks, you got to learn English. You know, you need to learn English. That's the language we use. You got to learn that. The drawbacks are this notion of tolerance. By doing this, are we-are we-are we-are we walking away from this notion of a nation of tolerance? Um, do we really want to demand that everybody has to speak English? And, uh, lastly, this idea that, uh, it's going to happen anyhow, because the first generation clings to their values, but the second generation becomes Americanized, so it's going to happen anyhow. So to start his conversation off, I mean, can anybody here tell me, you know, what-what are American values. You know, what-what is-what is this country about?
Hard work, I think. You know, uh, and I think that's what a lot of the i-i-immigrants bring. They bring hard work. They're striving to get ahead. And I think that's what, uh, you know, our forefathers have done. Um, so I think, you know, to some -- in that respect, they bring to us a-a benefit, you know, no-nes-not a detriment.
Yeah. I think we're a-a land of opportunity, uh, and free choice. So they come here freely to do s-work. Uh, I-I think back. Even my short lifespan -- uh, we are a hodgepodge(see 7) of all kinds of different cultures. What we have today is -- we call American culture is not American culture as it was a hundred years ago or 50 years ago. It's been constantly changing since 1600s. And it will change. Every generation, you w-you will have a slight change. Something is changing, because there's more inputs. And, to me, change is good, 'cause you're growing. Otherwise, you'd die, if you don't change.
Hard work. The notion of independence and free choice. What are others -- what are some of the other values there -- that-that we consider inherently American? What are they?
Our open-door policy. And we're a country of immigration. I mean, none of us, I think, here are Native Americans. So whether it's one, two, or three generations, we've come from somewhere else. And I think it's easier -- it was easier back then to-to learn the language. Today we have radio, television, movies, where the pockets of different cultures, as they arrive, can -- th-there isn't that strong of a survival need to assimilate, because they can rely on maintaining their own language to survive and-and to succeed, because they have a support system of radio and film and friends and a social group that all speak the same language. So I think that's sort of a challenge for-for new immigrants to come here. There isn't that urgent need to learn the language. Although I think they do l-ultimately learn it.
[unintelligible]. Uh, we all-we all came over on different ships, but we're on the same boat now. Uh, even though it's equal opportunity and all of these different things, uh, we speak -- as American, but is it fair -- is it right to bring somebody and put them in a place where they're unl-untaught -- even though t-they won't be part of a land, uh, of-of-of the free and everything. But is it fair to them to just put them in a position that, uh, they don't know nothing, they don't understand things? Um, part of me -- I-I grew up in Georgetown, been in Georgetown my whole life. And I just seen dramatic changes, you know, um, some for the good and some for, you know, th-the bad. But, uh, my thing is even -- I can't speak on, uh, the rest of the countries. I can speak on what I see in this area. You know, just part of me just feel that, um, they're here now. So what are we going to do? We need to help these p-we need to help them and do the right thing. But I-I --part of me feel they're not getting the right help. S-some are, to me -- some are just saying something and doing something -- doing another -- doing something else. And, uh, tenu-not speaking bad about things. I have actually addressed some issues in Georgetown, because I hated to see people do some of the things they do. And really, I got no response. You know, a-and I just felt it was wrong, because I felt like this. If I go to another country, if I'm hungry, I'm going to eat. And I feel these people are hungry. If somebody put some food on my plate, and I'm hungry, I'm going to eat it. And I feel that's what we're -- they are doing. But it's just, to me -- part of me is saying some are just dr-allowing them to come in any kind of way without being taught, without teaching them different things or -- I-I-I don't -- it's just not good. Now, the next generation coming up, the ones in school and everything -- I think they have a better chance than the people that's just coming over illegally or whatever. Uh, I-I go out to the school, and I think the ones that's going to school with the kids now -- you're going to the schools and see how well they've been getting along and how they've been taught. And I think they have a better chance. But the ones that's here now, just came over with like just -- you know, I don't -- it's-it's kind of hard for them. So I think it sh-it should-should have really addressed, uh, you know, the help.
Because I know some of you -- I don't want to put you on the spot, but I will call on you occasionally. And Marissa, I'll ask you. I mean -- uh, you know, whatever. I mean, eight years ago, I mean, why-why did you-why did you-why did you want to come to-to America?
Um, and that is exactly the-the reason I-I was motivated to attend this forum, because, um, there is a lot of people that oftentimes ask that question. Why do they come here? Um, in my particular case, uh, my father came here about 15 years ago. Uh, he had a business in-in our country, in Guatemala. Uh, the economic situation didn't allow him to continue with his business, and he was looking for alternatives, other-other, uh, ways of bringing food to his family. Um, at the time, you know, um, everybody knew that if you need money, if you, uh, want to find a job, the place is the United States of America. Uh, he found a way to arrive to the United States. And, um, he left his family back home. He sent us money. Uh, we were able to complete, you know, um, high school. And, uh, he was able to apply for, um, his permanent residency. Um, 15 years later, we were able to, uh, join him here in the United States. Uh, one of the reasons why he wanted to bring us to Georgetown specifically -- he was -- he-he lived in other states and other cities. And Georgetown in particular, uh -- he said, "There-there is a community here. It's a small town. Um, everybody, you know, um, welcome, uh, immigrants. Uh, there is, uh, jobs available. Um, and I think you will have the opportunity here to, um, go to school and be part of the society." Uh, today, I am a United States citizen. And I realize that language was the-the-the key to integrate into this society. Uh, without a doubt, um, at the beginning, there were different situations where we thought, you know, this is discrimination. Uh, we are not, you know, being treated as we should as human beings. But really, now I realize what was happening was there was lack of communication. We were not understanding each other. Once we were able to communicate with people, it has been completely different. We understand each other. We're able to understand this culture, and this culture is able to understand ours. I think, uh, the solution is not going to be, well, this is the language here, and you can only speak this language. This is the values -- uh, these are the values and the culture here, and this is the only way. I think, as everybody mentioned, everybody has a different background. But we all come to-to a center point. Uh, we share, uh, a language, which is English in this country. We share some values. But at the same time, we still maintain our, uh, original identity. Um, and people oftentimes ask me, "Why do you still say my country, Guatemala, if you now live in the United States, and you're now, uh, a United States ci-United States citizen?" And gee, I feel very lucky, because I have two countries. I am still a Guatemalan, but I am still - I am also a United States citizen. Um, but my-my point is that language definitely opened a door for, uh, my brothers and myself to-to be part and engage in this society.
I was actually beginning to pick up a little bit of a Sussex County accent there. [unintelligible]. You got -- you have that twang in there, you know?
I learned English at Delaware Tech, and --
All right. One of-one of the ways, you know, that you can -- when you start to take this approach a-apart is, you know, to admit fewer immigrants. All right? I mean, we're-we're -- what do you -- how do you feel about that, this notion of admitting fewer immigrants? Is there too much diversity? I mean, if-if-if-if an immigrant was coming to a community near you, would you like to pick -- you know, do you have any parameters around the immigrant community that's going to settle next to you or settle close to you? Don't let me peel the onion here. You know what I mean? But this is about -- you know, hey, is -- I mean, do -- or do we like -- would we like different communities here, or is-is it just an open-door policy? Bring them on.
I think-I think the difficult thing about immigration is understanding how complex it is and all the millions of different reasons why people come. I mean, we th-we think that the majority of people come for economic reasons. But, um, people come for business reasons. People come for political persecution. People come to join family members. Uh, people come as fiancés. People come as tourists. There's-there's hundreds of reasons why people come, skilled workers, unskilled workers. And I think that's, um -- we assume immigration is kind of one way, and everyone's coming for one reason. And-and also thinking that everyone's coming to stay. And that's the other side of immigration, that not everyone is coming to stay. Some immigrants are coming just for a couple years or just for a specific purpose and with hopes of going home. And I think that's hard for us. We assume -- I teach, um, at a community college. And all of the students are there to learn English. But people assume they're all coming to stay and live here. And a lot of them want to go back home. And people say, "Well, why would you go back home," thinking that this is the greatest land in the world, and everybody naturally wants to come and live here. Not all immigrants want to come and live here forever. They want to come for a couple years. They have a specific purpose. A lot of them hope and dream to go home someday. Um, but, um, a lot of them don't go home. They end up staying here and getting used to it here and-and planting roots, um, and establishing themselves here, and they don't go home. But it's-it's really a complex issue.
How do the others of you -- how do you feel about that? I mean, is that right, that folks can roll into Dodge and go to school for a couple years and-and-and-and make some bucks, and then go home?
I-I think that's a very-a very valid point. I think a lot of, uh, at least first-generation immigrants come here with the idea of working for a while, maybe saving a bit of money, and then going back to-to where they came from with a better lifestyle. And I don't think, really, there's anything wrong with that. Um, I don't think we have to homogenize them and bring them to be just like us. Uh, the country I lived in before the U.S., uh, uh, United Arab Emirates -- it's probably the most diverse, uh, country in the world. There's people from every single corner of the world living there. And except for the 15 percent of the locals, everybody else is coming, spending a while, and then going back home. And that works just fine.
Ed, you were going to say something.
I th-I think that, uh, it's-it's a two-edge sword, uh, when you talk about immigration, no matter what the specific issue that you have. Um, a-as far as shutting down the borders, I d-I don't think that's even a possibility. Um, it's-it's a federal -- federally mandated, uh, uh, thing that we have to deal with, if they -- whatever their policy seems to be, that we here locally have to deal with that situation. And, uh, I have to agree with Marissa. I mean, th-the people that-that come here -- I've had the, uh -- the good fortune to-to deal with a lot of her family, uh, when-when they came here and, uh, have seen them be successes in our community. Um, and-and I th-I think that it's something that -- uh, we all, i-in our hearts would-would enjoy seeing people come and be successes here in our community. Uh, on the other hand, I don't know how much financially, uh, the federal government can-can withstand, uh, in continuing to have a-a totally open border, uh, on all sides. So, you know, it's a double-edge sword.