Учебно-методическое пособие по реферированию и аннотированию текстов на английском языке семей 2010



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fish, virtues, public institutions, epics cutlery, diseases, weapons, linen

crockery, mammals

1 diphtheria, typhoid, cholera, chickenpox.

2 schools, hospitals, courts, prisons

3 gun, sword, spear, lance

4 Iliad, Ramayana, Mahabharata

5 cup, saucer, plate, bowl

6 salmon, trout, plaice, sturgeon

7 spoon, knife, fork

8 elephant, whale, bear, monkey

9 sheet, pillow-case, tablecloth, napkins

10 honesty, kindness, sincerity, modesty

Focus ON FACTS (FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE)

Writers at times use figurative language to make a description or narration more vivid. However, while summarizing we focus on the fact behind the figurative language.

For example,

1a. It is as plain as the nose on your face that they

are in love.

1 b. It is obvious that they are in love.

2a. I'm feeling a bit out of sorts today.

2b. I'm not feeling very well today.

The message expressed using figurative language in 1a and 2a is conveyed in plain language in 1b and 2b.

TASK 4


Shorten the sentences below by replacing the phrases in italics with an appropriate phrase or word and rewrite them.

1 Miss Mason looked as if she had seen a ghost.

………………………………………………………………………..

2 Sajad was black and blue all over after he fell off his bike.

………………………………………………………………..

3 The Director gave Mohsin the cold shoulder at the party.

……………………………………………………………….

4 After the bell rang, the children entered the class like a stampeding herd of elephants.

………………………………………………………………………………..

5 We'll need to get a move on if we don't want to miss our bus.

…………………………………………………………………..

6 After his son's death, he felt there was no point in going on living.

………………………………………………………………………………..

7 There were no clouds in the sky and the sun beat down pitilessly.

………………………………………………………………………………..

8 Mr Darcy could have bitten his tongue off for making those remarks.

…………………………………………………………………………

Summarizing Paragraphs

To summarize a paragraph, we need to identify the topic sentence or the main point of the paragraph. Study the paragraph below. What do you think is the main idea?

Everyone is in a great hurry nowadays. Cars speed down roads, trains whizz past stations and jets roar across continents and seas. Their speed keeps increasing.

Why? Because people are in a tearing hurry to reach their destination.

The main idea which is expanded with examples in the paragraph is: Everyone is in a hurry nowadays. Sometimes, the main idea is not very obvious. You then need to read this paragraph carefully to arrive at the main idea.

TASK 5

Read the paragraph below. Then determine which of the four options summarizes the paragraph the best.



For years Indians lived by the weatherproof maxim of Rahim:' Tloatbepaonpasariyejitti iambi saur (Stretch your legs such that your legs don't stick out of the blanket). Very simply, Akbar's poet-minister advocated living within means. So India had among the highest savings rates, conspicuous spending was frowned upon and assets were created either out of savings or inheritance. Would-be grooms were, and still are, screened on the basis of personal habits and personal debt. To be in debt, in short, was to mortgage the future - among the worst curses one could invite. For many, it also meant the good things in life either came too late or never happened, leaving them longing wistfully for that dream home, that car ride or that home theatre system.

IndiaToday

17 November 2003

a. Indian society has disapproved the credit culture.

b. Indians have always spent money carefully.

c. Indians live by the maxims of wise men.

d. Many Indians cannot afford luxuries.

Note: Newspaper headlines generally summarize the article that follows. Study the news item here and determine whether the headline truly conveys the content.

Man swallows 99 nails, dies

A man who swallowed 99 nails to ward off evil spirit died in a hospital in Rourkela on Saturday. Akliyay Kumar Mohanry, 40, who was admitted to Ispat General Hospital here after he complained of severe stomach ache, told surgeons that he had swallowed 99 nails to ward off evil spirit. Nails four inches each in length were found in Mohanty's stomach, duodenum and colon.

Occam Herald . Sunday, 22 February 2004

TASK 6


Given below is another extract. Write a headline that summarizes the news item.

Seven tropical community groups, including one from India, have been awarded prizes by the United Nations for their work to reduce poverty and conserve biological wealth, PTI reports from United Nations.

The Genetic Research, Energy, Ecology and Nutrition (GREEN) Foundation of India, which works with agricultural communities, especially women in Karnataka, is among the seven groups which have been awarded the prestigious United Nations Equator Prize for 2004. The winners were announced at an awards ceremony in the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur on Thursday.

Decern Herald Saturday, 21 February 2004

Types of Summaries

There are two types of summaries - whole passage summary or precis, and selective summary. In a precis, the passage is usually reduced to one-third its length. In selective summaries, on the other hand, only such details that are asked for or needed are taken from the passage and summarized.

TASK 7

The passage below presents the process of digestion. Read the whole passage and write a summary of the process of digestion in not more than forty words.



Food and digestion

Digestion is when food is broken down into smaller particles. This happens so that food can be absorbed into the bloodstream. Dr. Beaumont proved that part of this process happens in the stomach.

The food in the stomach is mixed with gastric juice. This is very acidic. It contains lots of hydrochloric acid. Gastric juice helps the enzymes in the stomach to break down the food.

Dr Beaumont also found that the digestive enzymes work best at body temperature, which is 37° C. They still work at lower temperatures, but they work more slowly.

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Answer to Task 7

Digestion happens in the stomach. Digestion is breaking down food into simpler substances that can be absorbed into the blood. The food is broken down by gastric juices. Digestive enzymes work best at body temperature.

(35 words)

TASK 8

Here is a passage about oil and gas. Read it carefully and then write a summary in not more than forty words on one of the two topics. Give your summary an appropriate heading.



Ұ The uses of crude oil

Ұ The growing need for fossil fuel

Oil and Gas

Petroleum is the proper name for 'crude oil' that is found underground. There is more petroleum on Earth than any other liquid, except for water. Crude oil and | natural gas are often found together. The natural gas is dissolved in the liquid oil.

Crude oil provides two-thirds of the world's energy supplies. Oil and gas are non¬renewable sources. Our use of these has increased so much that we worry about how long they will last. The supplies will probably run out this century.

Crude oil is not a pure substance. It contains many different materials. Petrol, paraffin, kerosene (for aeroplane fuel), diesel fuel, engine oil and bitumen (road tar) are all

found in crude oil.

People have used substances from crude oil for thousands of years. Some oil finds its way naturally up to the Earth's surface. Here it evaporates and leaves behind bitumen - the tarry part of the crude oil. This has been used for thousands of years as a waterproofing agent for plumbing, boat building and brickwork.

The history books talk about bitumen being used as a coating for Moses' basket.

Noah's Ark was waterproofed inside and out with it. The Native Americans collected crude oil to use in medicines. The American settlers learned to collect it to use as fuel in their lamps.

Crude oil became valuable in the nineteenth century. The whaling industry did not provide enough whale oil to light the lamps of the world and a new source was needed. The first oil well was drilled in August 1859.

The uses for oil increased as the supply grew. The car engine meant that the petrol from the oil mixture was needed for transport. Then the invention of aeroplanes needed more inch which had to be supplied form oil. In the 1940s man-made materials (such as nylon and polythene) made from oil were invented.

It is no wonder that oil was called 'black gold' and that discovery of oil and gas could mean riches beyond belief.

Oil is a fossil fuel. When we burn it we are releasing energy captured from the Sun millions of years ago by prehistoric plants and animals - the remains of these microscopic plants and tiny animals settled on the seabed. They were buried by sand the years went by. I he layers built up and the living things turned into oil. Some of this oil was trapped underground, not as a 'lake' but in the sandy rock itself.

An oil well is drilled to look for pockets of porous rock that contains crude oil. When a pocket is found, water is pumped down to push the oil to the surface. "I he crude oil is then taken to a refinery. At the refinery, oil is separated into its parts by fractional distillation.

(Heslop et al Hodder Science Gold (Pupils Book B) Hodder Murray 2002)

TASK 9

Given below is a passage from James Forbes'book Oriental Memories that was written in the nineteenth century. Read Hand write a thirty-word summary on Kashmiri shawls in the nineteenth century. Give a title to your summary.



Surat is also a considerable market for shawls, one of the most delicate fabrics vet brought from the loom: they are not indeed manufactured at Surat, not m any of the southern provinces, being chiefly the produce of Cachemire, that 'paradise nations,' where Acber, and many of the imperial princes retired from the cares of government: encircled by their favourite courtiers, and in the bosom of their family, they enjoyed in that mild climate the picturesque scenery of the surrounding mountains, and the rural beauties of the delicious valley, watered by the celebrated Hydaspes, and refreshed by many other streams from its lofty boundaries. The shawls manufactured in Cachemire, from the delicate silky wool of a goat peculiar to Thibet, are an elegant article of luxury, too well known in Europe, to need a particular description: this manufacture is

not confined to Cachemire, but all others are deemed of an inferior quality: their

prime cost is from twenty to five hundred rupees a shawl, according to j the size, texture, and pattern: some, perhaps, may be more valuable.

(written in 1812)

Summarizing Longer Passages

To summarize longer passages or full chapters, we follow the same techniques we used to summarize paragraphs - we make a note of all the main points.

TASK 10

Read the passage below from Bom Free by Joy Adamson. In not more than fifty words state how the truck was taken across.



We packed up camp and arrived early in the morning at the ford to find that the water had risen considerably during the night and was still going up; we decided that it was still just fordable by cars. George unhitched the trailer from the Landrover and removed the fan belt to prevent water from splashing over the ignition system, then it crept into the river and crossed successfully.

Next my truck entered with Elsa, as usual, sitting in the back. The water rushed past at alarming speed, carrying debris. The truck got bravely into the middle, then the engine spluttered and died. Nothing would make it start again. We released Elsa at once; she plunged into the water, splashed about and tried to retrieve the drift-wood, as though we had arranged all this for her amusement. Indeed she had such fun ducking the men I who were wading shoulder-high carrying { the loads across that we were finally obliged to tie her up. When at last the truck was empty, we tried to tow it, but it leant alarmingly to one side and the chains we had brought with us were not I long enough, so we had rapidly to improvise extensions with buffalo hide. Eventually, all hands pushing and I pulling, and applauded by the ever- present baboons, we managed to get it across.

Camp had to be pitched on the spot, as it took all the rest of the day to dry out our kit, medicines, ammunition, books, foods, the engine of the truck, car spares, bedding rolls and tents. Elsa spent her time sniffing the still life, including George's tobacco which made her grimace in disgust.

Born Free by Joy Adamson William Collin Sons & CO.

Summarizing Stories

While summarizing stories, we should look for the main incidents and ignore details that are not important. We should also avoid repeating the figurative language the author may have used. A technique that can be used is to note down the main idea in each paragraph and then put them together to make a summary.

TASK 11

Read the story and write a summary in not more than 120 words. Give your summary a title.



1 Tired after a long day's travel through desert land, Ibrahim Bin Adham pitched his tent on the sands and went to sleep. For some hours he enjoyed a deep and

dreamless sleep.

2 Then suddenly in the middle of the night he was woken by a bright light shining inside his tent. At first he wondered if it was already broad daylight. But sitting up, he saw a remarkable sight: a man wearing radiant white robes stood in one corner of his little tent! He had a golden book in his hands. The man had wings on his back and Ibrahim guessed that he was an angel.

3 Ibrahim quietly watched to see what the angel would do. The shining stranger lifted one arm and instantly a pen appeared in his hand. He concentrated on writing something in the golden book. Ibrahim could not contain his curiosity any longer. Although half afraid that the vision would disappear into thin air if he made it known that he was awake, he very respectfully asked the stranger who he was.

4 The shining man showed no surprise that Ibrahim was talking to him. He said: "I am the angel Gabriel, one of God's servants."

5 Ibrahim asked him what he was writing in his golden book. "In this book I am writing down the names of those men, women and children who are friends of God," explained Gabriel.

6 "Is mine one of the names you are writing in your book?" asked Ibrahim.

7 "Oh no, Ibrabim ," said the angel in a pitying voice. "You are not one of the friends of God."

8 "Yes," agreed Ibrahim humbly. "But Gabriel, have you another book in which to list the names of people who, like myself, are friends of those who are the friends of God?"

9 Gabriel shook his head. He looked at Ibrahim for a long moment. At last he said, holding up the open book: "Ibrahim, a friend of man is a friend of God. Look, though I have not written your name, God Himself has written it in this book!"

10 Sure enough. Right at the top of the page, in letters of shining gold, were the words: "Ibrahim Bin Adham"

DebjaniChatterjee: Sufi Stories HarperCollins Publishers, India, 1997

Notes

Para 1: tired -journey - thro' a desert - Ibrahim Bin Adham slept-tent.



Para 2: woken up - light - shining from angel.

Para 3:


Summarizing Spoken Texts

We are constantly summarizing conversations in real life. Read the telephone conversation in the box and then read the summary about Shirin's son that follows.

Telephone Conversation

Shirin: Hello, may I speak to Ayesha?

Ayesha: Ayesha speaking. Is chat Shirin?

ShirinrYes. How are you Ayesha?

Ayesha: Fine, thank you. How are you?

Shirin: Fine, too!

Ayesha: How's your son? I heard that he's in hospital

Shirin: Yes. He was in an accident. He broke his leg.

Ayesha: Oh, dear! How long will he be in hospital?

Shirin: He'll be discharged on Friday, I hope!

Ayesha: I'll come over on Saturday. Is that OK?

Shirin: It's fine. See you on Saturday.

Ayesha: See you. 'Bye. Take care

Shirin: You too. 'Bye.

SUMMARY: Shirin's son broke his leg in an accident. He's in hospital and will be home on Friday.

TASK 12


Here is a piece of conversation taken from a short story. Read it and do one of the summaries.

Ұ Summarize the whole passage in about forty words.

Ұ Summarize the cures proposed for a cold in 30 words.

-"What are you doing for your cold and fever?"

-"Well, my doctor has prescribed a course of antibiotics. He says that's the only way I can manage to take classes."

-"Antibiotics? Oh no! That's the last thing to have. Have you tried drinking a glass of warm milk with a pinch of haldi? It really helps."

-"The best remedy is ginger. Nothing like ginger. Just soak some whole ginger in a glass of water and strain it and then..."

-"I think honey is much better. A spoonful of honey in lime juice, every morning."

-"My sister-in-law had a very interesting cure for blocked noses. She used to burn one end of a turmeric root and take in the fumes. It worked each time, she said."

-"I think some positive thinking can work wonders. Just tell yourself you are absolutely fine and you will be."

PoileSengupts: Roll Call Rupa& Co., 2003

Summarizing Speeches

Speeches are easier to summarize as the speakers usually prepare speeches carefully. However, you might notice that since it is in the spoken form, speakers often repeat a phrase or ideas, expand a single idea with many examples and at times use sentences that will catch the attention of the listener. Remember to identify the main idea(s) conveyed in the speech. Then combine the main ideas to arrive at the identity summary of the speech.

TASK 13


Given below is an extract from a talk that was broadcast on the BBC. Read it and identify the topic in each section.

All our courses will be for honours. Most English universities have a pass course which is less rigorous than the honours course, and is followed mainly by students who, at the end of their first year, are thought not to be of honours caliber. It is primarily a course for casualties. Often it consists of bits and pieces taken in several departments and lacks cohesion as well as depth. In Essex, all students will read for honours, although someone who, in the final examination, is not good enough to be awarded third class nor bad enough to be failed outright may be awarded a pass. There

will obviously be an occasional student who will find the course too demanding and will not complete it. But the advantage for the weaker students of continuing with the honours course is that, as well as following an integrated scheme, they are working together with all their original colleagues. They can be helped by contact with them

and they do not bear the stigma of inferior status.

A word about examinations. Only systematic research can show how far the British system really measures intellect and originally, and not simply the ability to pass examinations. At this stage we propose no radical change. But we shall vary the circumstances under which a student is assessed; have some short examinations and some long, allow students m certain subjects to make use of textbooks and reference books, and take into account research projects. The student of physics, for example, will be required in his final year to study and report on at least one specialized topic, either experimental or theoretical, and the class of his final degree will be determined in part by" this individual research project. It will thus reflect the student's ability to practise science.

Albert E. Sloman: ‘A University in the Making'

Topic 1:.......................................

Topic 2: .......................................

Now write a summary of the talk in about fifty words.

TASK 14


Given below is an excerpt from a speech by John Ruskin, delivered more than a hundred years ago at the Working Men's institute at Camberwell. It was subsequently published in The Crown of Wild Olives.

Read the first three paragraphs and summarize it in 3 sentences. Make notes as you read.

WORK

All wise work is mainly threefold in character. It is honest, useful and cheerful.



I hardly know anything more strange than that honesty is recognized in play and not in work. In your lightest games you have always some one to see what you call 'fair play'. In boxing, you must hit fair; in racing, strat fair. Your English watchword is fair-play, your English hatred, foul-play. But your prize-merchant gains his match by foul selling, and no one cries out against that. You drive a gambler out of the gambling-room who loads dice, but you leave a tradesman in flourishing business, who loads scales! All dishonest dealing is loading scales. What does it matter whether I get short weight, adulterate substance, or dishonest fabric? The fault in the fabric is incomparably the worse of the two. Give me short measure of food and I only lose by you; but give me adulterated food, and I die by you. Here, then, is the chief duty of all workmen and tradesmen to be true to themselves and to others. Without honesty all these suffrages, all reforms, all free-trade measures and ail institutions of science,, are in vain. It is useless to put your heads together if you can't put your hearts together.

No man minds, or ought to mind, his work being hard, if only it comes to something. But when it is hard and comes to nothing, when all his bees' business turns to spiders'; and for honeycomb we have only resultant cobweb, blown away by the next breeze,

that is the cruel thing for the worker. Of all wastes, the greatest waste that you can commit is the waste of labour. You perhaps think "to waste the labour of men is not to kill them". Is it not? I should like to know how you could kill them more utterly - kill them with second deaths, seventh deaths, hundredfold deaths?

Sentence 1:…………………………………………………………………….

Sentence2:………………………………………………………………………

Sentence 3:……………………………………………………………………..

Now do the same for the last three paragraphs. Notice how the first sentence in each paragraph sets out what the speaker's topic is going to be.

Wise work is cheerful, as a child's work is. The first character of right childhood is Modesty. A well-bred child does not think I it can teach its parents, or that it knows I everything. It is always asking questions I and wanting to know more. Well, that is the first character of a good and wise man at his work: To know that he knows very little; to perceive that there are many above him wiser than he; and to be always asking questions, wanting to learn, not to teach.

The second character of right childhood is Faith. Perceiving that its father knows best what is good for it, when it has tried its own way against his, that he was right and it was wrong, a noble child trusts him at last wholly, gives him its hand, and will walk blindfold with him, if he bids it. And that is the true character of all good men also, as obedient workers, or soldiers under captains. They must trust their captains; they are bound for their lives to choose none but those whom they can trust. Then, they are not always to be thinking that what seems strange to them, or wrong, is strange or wrong. Without such trust and faith in captainship no great deed, no great salvation is possible to man.

The third character of right childhood is to be Loving and Generous. It loves everything near it, would hurt nothing, would give the best it has away, always, if you need it; does not lay plans for getting everything in the house for itself, and delights in helping people. And because of all these characters, the child is Cheerful. Putting its trust in its father, it is careful for nothing - being full of love to every creature, it is happy always, whether in its play or its duty. Well, that's the great worker's character also. Lovely human play is like the play of the Sun. There's a worker for you. He, steady to his time, is set as a strong man to run his course. See how he plays in the morning, with the mists below, and the clouds above, with a ray here and a flash there and a shower of jewels everywhere- that’s the Sun’s play, and great human play is like his- all various-all full of light and life, and tender, as the dew of the morning.

Sentence 1:.....................................................................

Sentence 2:......................................................................

Sentence 3:......................................................................

TASK 15


Now expand each of the sentences above into a paragraph of twenty words. What details will you include ? What details will you exclude?

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TASK 16


Read the text and do exercises to it.

FOG


Fog is simply a cloud on the ground, composed, like any cloud, of tiny droplets of water or, in rare eases, of ice crystals, forming an ice fog. Ice fogs usually occur only in extremely cold climates, because the water drop¬lets in a cloud are so tiny they do not solidify until the air temperature is far below freezing, generally 30 degrees below zero Celsius or lower.

The droplets of fog are nearly spherical; they vary in diameter between two and 50 microns and in concentra¬tion between 20 and 500 droplets per cubic centimeter of air. The transparency of a fog depends mainly on the con¬centration of droplets; the more droplets, the denser the fog. A wet sea fog may contain a gram of water per cubic meter.

Since water is 800 times denser than air, investigators were long puzzled as to why fogs did not quickly disappear through fallout of the water particles to the ground. To explain the persistence of fogs many early investigators concluded that the droplets must be hollow (that is bubbles). It turns out, however, that the droplets are fully liquid and do fall at the predictable rate, but in fog-creating conditions they either are buoyed up by rising air cur rents or are continually replaced by new droplets condensing from the water vapor in the air.

The atmosphere always contains some water vapor, supplied by evaporation from different bodies of water, vegetation and other sources . The droplets condense on tiny particles of dust in the air called condensation nuclei. These are hydroscopic particles which because of their affinity for water vapor, initiate condensation atsubsaturation humilities-sometimes as low as 65 percent.

The nucleus on which the water condenses, which may be a soil particle or a grain of sea salt, a combustion product or cosmic dust, usually dissolves in the droplet. Because the saturation point is lower in .solution that it is for pure wafer, the droplets of solution tend to condense more water vapor on them and

grow in size.

Given suitable conditions of temperature and humidity, the density of a fog and its microphysical properties will depend on the availability of condensation nuclei and their nature. Fogs become particularly dense near certain industrial plants because of the high concentration of hydroscopic combustion particles in the air.

WORD-ORDER

When

WHO who how



WHAT act ion what when

which


where

0 1 2 3 4

E x e r c i s e s

I. Arrange the words to form a sentence.

1. the atmosphere, some water vapor, contains, 2. near industrial plants, fogs, are rare. 3, occur, in cold countri¬es, ice fogs. 4, a cloud, is, fog, on the ground. 5. conden¬se, the droplets, in the air, on tiny particles of dust. 6. become, particularly dense, logs, near industrial plants.

II. Answer these questions in short simple sentences. Your answers must follow each other so that all your sentences will form a complete paragraph. Your paragraph wilt be a precis of the piece,

1. What do we call fog? 2 What is the shape of the droplets of fog? ,3. What does the transparency of a fog depend upon? 4. Why does not fog disappear through fal¬lout of the water particles? 5. What is the water vapor of atmosphere supplied by? 6. Where do the droplets con¬dense? 7. What happens with the nucleus on which the water condenses? 8, Why do droplets of solution grow in size? 9. What does the density of a fog depend upon? 10. Where are fogs particularly dense?

///. Explain the meaning of the italicized words and phrases as they are used in the pass age.

IV, Join the following sentences using the connecting words in brackets. Omit the words in italics.

I. Ice fogs usually occur only in extremely cold cli¬mates. The water droplets in a cloud solidify only if the air temperature is far below freezing, (because). 2. The droplets in fog-creating conditions are buoyed up by ri¬sing air currents. The droplets are continually replaced by new droplets condensing from the water vapor in the air (either ... or). 3. The saturation point is lower in solution than it is for pure water. The droplets of solution tend to condense more water vapor on them and grow in size, (because). 4. Fog is a cloud on the ground composed of tiny droplets of water. Fog is a cloud on the ground, com¬posed of ice crystals, (either ... or). 5. The water droplets in a cloud do not solidify. The air- temperature is far below freezing, (until). 6. Water is 800 times denser than air. The droplets-of wafer fall at the predictable rate, (since). 7. The nucleus on which the water condenses may be a soil particle. The nucleus may be a grain of sea salt. (either ... or).

V, Instead of saying: Fog is a cloud on the ground which is composed of tiny droplets of water.

We can say: Fog is a cloud on the ground composed of tiny droplets of water.

Change the following sentences accordingly.

1. The atmosphere contains some water vapor which is supplied by evaporation

33

from different bodies of water.



2. The droplets of water condense on tiny particles of dust us the air which are called condensation nuclei, 3. Ice fog is a cloud on the ground which is composed of ice crys¬tals.

Complete the following sentences.

1. A cloud on the ground composed of ... is called fog. 7. Water vapour supplied by ... forms a part of the at¬mosphere. 3. Tiny particles of dust called ... initiate con¬densation at subsaturationhumidities.

VI. Study the form of these sentences,

1. The more droplets the denser the fog. 2. The higher the humidity of the air the denser the fog. 3, The lower the temperature the faster the solidification of water droplets.

Write sentences using: the more ... the less; the hig¬her ... the slower; the better ... the faster.

VII. Explain the meaning of "since" in these sentences.

1. Since water is 800 times denser than air it seemed strange why fogs did not disappear through fallout of the water particle to the ground. 2. Ice fogs occur in cold climates since the water droplets in a cloud solidify only if the air temperature is far below freezing. 3. Fogs have become particularly dense since autumn,

VIII. Study the form of this sentence.

Given suitable conditions of temperature and humidity

the density of a fog will depend on the availability of

condensation nuclei and their nature.

Complete the following.

Given suitable air temperature... Given suitable condi¬tions of atmosphere... Given "suitable conditions of humidity …

IX. Write sentences beginning with: It turns out that...

X. Instead of saying: the salt of the sea.

We can say: sea salt.

Change the following in the same way.

Particles of combustion; droplets of water; temperature of the air; point of saturation; particles of soil; crystals of ice.

TASK 17


Read the text and do exercises to it.

TSUNAMIS


Exceptional disturbances of ocean water occur during and after earthquakes, landslides or volcanic eruptions in and around the ocean basins. These produce waves several hundreds miles in length, with periods of up to half an hour,

precediant velocities of up to 800 km/hr across the deep oceans. They are barely perceptible in mid-ocean but on entering shallow coastal waters they build up into giant "tidal waves" which may attain heights of more than 30 m by the time they reach the coast. The term "tidal waves" is misleading, for they are not tidal in origin, and the scientific term for them is the Japanese word "tsunami". They are most common in the Pacific Ocean, which is bordered by zones of crustal instability, and they are responsible for occasional catastrophic flood¬ing and erosion of Pacific coasts, often with much de¬vastation and loss of life far from the originating disturbance.

In April 1946 a tsunami was initialed by an earth¬quake off the Aleutian Islands, and waves travelling south¬wards arrived in the Hawaiian Islands, 3700 km away, in less than five hours, having moved at an average speed of 750 km/hr. The town Hilo in Hawaii was hit by wa¬ves rising 9m, and at one point a wave reached 16.8 m. Beaches were swept away, and the waves carried reef debris, including large blocks of coral, on to the coast, and eroded hollows on hillsides far above normal high tide level. giant waves were recorded at many other places around the Pacific Ocean.

It is now realized that tsunamis are not necessarily “dumped down”, by distances; The magnitude of waves received depends, partly on offshore topography, the waves being higher where the offshore zone is gently shelving; and partly on the orientation of a coast, in relation to the source of the disturbance. An earthquake along a fault line is likely to produce higher waves on coasts facing and parallel to the fault than on coasts which run obli¬quely to it; the greatest effects of the I960 tsunami off the coast of Chile were on parts of the Japanese coast pa¬rallel to the line of disturbance of the Chilean earthquake. Wave heights are much reduced where coral reefs border the coast, where there is deep water close inshore, or where the waves have been refracted round reefs, shoals or islands of intricate configuration.

E x e r c i s e s

/. Arrange the words to form a sentence.

1. tsunamis, in the Pacific Ocean, are most common. 2. a tsunami, in April 1946, was initiated, off the Aleutian Islands, by an earthquake. 3. carried, the waves, reef debris, on to the coast. 4. were recorded, giant waves, at many places, around the Pacific, 5. are barely perceptible, waves, in mid ocean.

//. Answer the questions in short simple sentences. Your paragraph should not exceed 100 words.

1. When do tsunamis occur? 2. When do tsunamis attain exceptional heights? 3. Where are tsunamis most common? 4. What are tsunamis responsible for? . What does the magnitude of waves depend on? G. Where are wave heights reduced?

///. In not more than 10 words describe the 1946 tsuna¬mi. Use your own words as far as possible.

IV .Explain the meaning of the italicized- words and phrases as they are used in the passage.

V. Join the following sentences using the connecting words in brackets. Omit the words in italics.

1. On entering shallow coastal waters the waves build up into giant "tidal waves".

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These waves may attain heights of more than 30 m. (which). 2. The term "tidal waves" is misleading. They are not tidal in origin, (for). 3. Tsunamis are most common in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is bordered by zones of crustal instability, (which). 4. Tsunamis occur during and after earthquakes in the ocean basins. Tsunamis occur during and after earthquakes around the ocean basins. (both ... and). 5. Wave heights are much reduced where there is deep water close inshore. Wave heights are much reduced where coral reefs border the coast, (both ... and).



VI. Instead of saying: The waves carried reef debris . which included large blocks of coral.

We can say: The waves carried reef debris including large blocks of coral.

Change the following sentences in the same way.

1. On coasts which face the fault an earthquake .is likely to produce4 higher waves. 2. The town of Hilo in Hawaiian Islands was high by waves which rose 9 m. 3, On. entering shallow coastal waters the waves build up into giant "tidal waves" which attain tremendous heights. 4. Waves which travelled southwards arrived in the Ha¬waiian Islands in less than five hours. 5. An earthquake along the fault line is likely to produce lower waves on coasts which run obliquely to the fault.

Complete the following,

I. Waves travelling ... arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in less than five hours. 2. Disturbances of ocean wavesoc¬curring ... produce giant waves. 3. Waves entering ... build up info giant "tidal waves".

VII. Compare these two sentences.

instead of saying: When students turn to the passage they learn that tsunamis are most common in the Pacific Ocean.

We can say: On turning to the passage the students learn...

Write these sentences again so that each one begins with "On...

1. When the waves arrived in the Hawaiian Islands they hit the town of Hilo. 2. When tsunamis enter shallow coastal waters they build up into giant waves. 3. When tidal waves reach the coastal waters They attain heights of more than 30 in.

VIII. Compare these two sentences.

Instead of saying: When the students finish the work they go home.

We can say: Having finished the work the students go home.

Change the following sentences in I he same way,

I. When tsunamis attain heights of more than 30 m they hit the coast. 2. When tsunami waves hit the coast they erode hollows far above normal high tide level. 3. When tsunami waves reach the coast they sweep away the beaches.

IX. Study the following sentence.

An earthquake along the fault line is likely to produce higher waves on coasts facing the fault than on coasts which run obliquely to it.

Com plete the following.

Waves heights are likely to be reduced where... 2. Tsunamis are likely to occur after,.. 3. Great waves are likely to erode... 4, Tsunamis are likely to be responsible for.

TASK 18

Read the text and do exercises to it.

Why Italians don’t Make Babies?

ONCE upon a time, the Anglo- Saxon cliche held that Italy stood for love and passion; frequent and frenzied sex, without, of course, contraception; and, as a result, big weddings, big families and loads of children. How times – and images – change. Italians have stopped making babies; the nation is ageing fast; and, according to the country's chief statistical body, Italy has the lowest fertility rate in the world. Women now bear 1,2 babies apiece. Only the Spaniards, in Western Europe, are as unproductive. At last count, in 1996, deaths had outpaced births for four years in a row. If Italy's population is slightly up, it is thanks to the 178 000 immigrants who took up legal residence two years ago.

Why? No explanation is definitive. Ever more Italian women work, so have less time for bambini. North European women work just as much, but mothers get more help: public nurseries, finance, holidays, husbands who (more often than in Italy) help in the house. But

there are anomalies. The region of Emilia Romagna, for instance, has some of the best nurseries in the world but also Italy's lowest baby- making rate. Perhaps the dearth is due to late-coming feminism: the region is also Italy's most left-wing.

Ida Magli, an anthropologist, has come up with another reason: childlessness no longer bears a stigma, and the social pressure to marry and have children is much weaker. That applies even in the Mezzogiorno (Italy's poor and ultra-traditional south), where women are choosing to have fewer babies.

In any event, the notion that impetuous Italians have unprotected sex is false. It is some time since most Italians, even the good Catholics among them, eschewed contraception.

One more possible explanation? Young Italians discovered yuppiedom later than their American or French counterparts. But many of them do now want to go dancing, travel and have a good time for many more years than before. Marriage and babies can wait. And the two are still more closely linked than

in most other countries in Europe: only6 % of Italian babies are born out of wedlock. But less than a third of women now become mothers before they are 28. One Italian habit still survives, and may also inhibit baby- making: the, "mammoni-phenomenon". A lot of young adults – perhaps even more than before – still live with their parents, partly because they cannot afford to live so comfortably on their own. Living

with parents, however open-minded they

are, does tend to make you behave a bit more demurely with friends of the other sex. And there is still, even in Italy, a connection between sex and babies.

1. Vocabulary notes:

1) frenzied – бешеный, яростный, темпераментный

2) fertility – воспроизведение потомства

3) dearth – недостаток, нехватка (продуктов)

4) stigma – пятно позора, стигма

5) eschew – избегать, сторониться

6) yuppiedom – светская жизнь

7) inhibit – мешать, препятствовать, сдерживать

8) demurely – скромно, сдержанно

9) impetuous – порывистый, темпераментный

2. Answer the following questions.

1) Does the title of the text “Why Italians don’t make babies” express its main idea?

2) What are the consequences of Italians have stopped making babies?

3) Can Italian women employment be considered as a definitive explanation?

4) Is childlessness still believed to be shameful?

5) Do Italians postpone marriage and babies because of their wish to have a good time?

6) What is “mammoni-phenomenon”?

3. Summary.

TASK 19

Read the text and do exercises to it.

Doctored

In any list of die great names in the history of economics, there is sure to be more than a sprinkling of Britons – from Adam Smith to Ricardo, Marshall, Keynes and Hicks.But British economics dons are asking themselves an uncomfortable question: where are their successors coming from? And who is going to teach them?

The number of Britons taking master's degrees-generally regarded as the minimum qualification for professional economists – is holding up. But the number going on to doctorates is falling. Andrew Oswald, an economics professor at Warwick University, says that the top ten economics departments in Britain now average only one new British doctoral student a year.

In 1997 the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), which finances the studies of about a quarter of PhD economics students, handed out 33 awards. British students took only 16 – the rest went to students from the European Union. The British share of applications awards also fell below half for the first time, from 58 out of 100 in 1995 to 31 out of 84 in 1997. In Keynes's day, none of this would have

mattered – the great man had but one degree, in mathematics. But the ESRC is sufficiently concerned about all this to be planning a study of why the number of would-be PhDs is falling.

The obvious answers is pay. The starting salary for a university lecturer, with a doctorate in economics, is, at best, ?20 000 ($32 400) a year.

Yet in the City of London, economists with only master's degrees can expect to start

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on nearer to ?30 000- and comfortably more than that if they have a few years’ experience in the Bank of England or the Treasury. Indeed, a PhD usually adds nothing to an economist's earning power in a City firm, unless it is in a sought-after area such as econometrics (high-powered number-crunching).



The growth of economic consultancy has provided another career path, drawing economists away from academe. Behind this, says Simon Gaysford of London Economics, a consultancy, lie two things. One is privatisation, which in effect forced companies to hire experts on economic regulation. AS privatisation has spread across the world, so British economists have found that expertise gained at home is highly marketable. Second, because antitrust cases "how turn on economic as well as legal arguments, companies are paying big fees to economists as well as lawyers.

Besides the pay gap, academic life is less secure than it used to be: staff who would once have had tenure are as sackable as anybody else. Also, says Dieter Helm – who is an Oxford don as well as director of «Oxera», a consultancy – the burden of paperwork and lack of research funds are extra reasons not to become an academic . The market for economists works far better outside the universities than it does inside them. The scarcity of top professors, says Professor Oswald, is now driving their salaries up; but the cartel of university bosses has succeeded in keeping the lid on junior dons' pay. Meanwhile, the City and the consultancies pay up. This may be lucrative for the current generation or economists. Who will educate the next generation though, is an unanswered question.

1. Vocabulary notes:

1) sprinkling – посыпание, уснащение

2) PhD (= Doctor of Philosophy) – докторфилософии

3) master’sdegree – степень магистра

4) soughtafter – популярный, модный

5) econometrics – эконометрика (наука, изучающая конкрет-

ные количественные связи между экономическими объектами и

процессами)

6) expertise – специальные знания, компетенция

7) tenure – зд. срок пребывания в должности

8) scarcity – недостаток, нехватка, редкость

9) tokeepthelidon – держать в секрете

10) lucrative – прибыльный, доходный, выгодный

2. Answer the following questions.

1) What uncomfortable question are British economics dons ask-

ing themselves? Why?

2) Which fact from the article proves the unpopularity of scientific activity among British students?

3) What is the obvious explanation of the fact the number of would be PhDs is falling?

4) What is the role of the growth of economic consultancy?

5) Which two things make economic expertise highly marketable?

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6) What does it mean “academic life is less secure than it used to be”?



7) What is the author’s conclusion?

TASK 20

Read the text and do exercises to it.

Write on


Just as the introduction of the printing press in Europe in the late 15th century led many scribes of the time into a state of unemployed despair, so the more recent spread of the computer – whose typefaces can reproduce

calligraphic designs of enormous variety – has made many latter-day scribes redundant Nevertheless, calligraphy as an art is still alive – both in its three traditional forms, based on Chinese, Roman and Arabic scripts, and in

experimental new departures.

For most people in the West, pride in penmanship is rare nowadays; however, in eastern countries good handwriting is still steadfastly taught in schools. China's Chairman Mao aspired to write out his own mediocre poems in a jagged script. And modern calligraphic masterpieces in Japan can sometimes fetch as much as a small Picasso painting.

Oriental calligraphers (who work with the brush rather than the pen) study and copy the output of their great forerunners and work within the same rigorous limits. Varying effects are created by holding the brush at different angles, and no mistakes can be altered or erased.

After Mao's death in 1976, however, a new generation in China dared to use calligraphy in avantgarde as well as traditional ways. And in Japan, at least one modern Japanese master, Ogawa Toshu, has also rejected the old limits. One of his calligraphic drawings, using' the characters for "Nesting Crane", depicts eyes at the heart of an ink storm; the artist says that it represents a mother crane who is protecting her young in a blizzard.

Western and Arabic calligraphy is based on the pen (though the brush was employed for illuminating manuscripts). Medieval Christian monks preferred to use a quill, made from goose or swan feathers, and modern secular calligraphers often use the same antiquarian tool. Islamic calligraphers preferred pens cut from dried reeds, as they still do today.

Later Christian craftsmen were usually clerks whose business was to make copies of the Bible in acceptable, workmanlike fashion.

Islamic calligraphy, on the other hand, has always been perceived as a meditative, even mystical exercise; the scribe has to make himself or herself (many Arabic calligraphers have been women) ritually pure before they set about transcribing from the Koran.

The best 20th-century calligraphers in the West are powerfully painterly. And their inspiration, as in the case of Mark Tobey, an American Expressionist who studied calligraphy at a Zen monastery in Japan, is usually oriental and (sometimes) Islamic.

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Hans-Joachim Burgert, a German master, believes that calligraphy is now free to discover its own underlying, primitive forms. His spirited brushwork in English of the words "Unknown Branches", in which the letters tumble and sway like a tree in a tempest, hovers provocatively on the borders of llegibility.



1. Vocabulary notes:

1) scribe – писец, переписчик

2) despair – отчаяние, источникогорчения, безысходность

3) typefaces – печатные литеры

4) departure – отклонение, направление, курс

5) penmanship – каллиграфия, чистописание

6) steadfastly – упорно, прочно

7) rigorous – строгий, точный, неукоснительный

8) “NestingCrane” – «Журавль, вьющий гнездо»

9) blizzard – метель, буран, буря

10) quill – птичье (гусиное) перо

11) secular – зд. светский, нецерковный

12) reed – тростник, камыш

13) workmanlike – искусно

14) meditative – созерцательный

15) painterly – живописный, относящийся к живописи

16) underlying – лежащий в основе, основной

18) spirited – смелый, задорный, выразительный

19) tumble – валяться, метаться, кувыркаться

20) sway – качаться, раскачиваться

21) tempest – буря

22) hover – парить, зависать, болтаться

2. Answer the following questions.

1) What is the article about?

2) In what countries can one be taught modern calligraphy?

3) What calligraphic styles does the author of the article mention?

4) Can we say that the art of calligraphy has been developing?

5) What does the author tell us about the best modern calligraphers?

Task 21

Read the text and do exercises to it.



Dyed in the Womb

A lesbian's sexual identity seems to be established before her birth. Men and women blink differently when startled . That simple and well-established observation has led QaziRahman of the University of East London, in England, and his colleagues to evidence supporting the idea that homosexuality is a characteristic which people are born with, rather man one they acquire as they grow up .The team's research, just

41

published in Behavioral Neuroscience, shows that lesbians blink like heterosexual men. That, in turn, suggests that the part of their brain that controls this reflex has been masculinised in the womb.



Anyone who is startled by an unexpected noise tends to blink. If,

however, the startling noise is preceded by a quieter sound, this blink is not so vigorous as it would otherwise have been. It is this lack of vigour which differs between the sexes. Men blink less vigorously than women when primed in this way.

Given such a clear and simple distinction, testing the responses of homosexuals to noise seemed an obvious experiment to do. So DrRahman and his colleagues did it. Their subjects, men and women, gay and straight, were sat down one by one in a dimly lit room. The muscles that cause blinking were wired up with recording electrodes, and the subjects were fitted with headphones through which the sounds

(sometimes a single startling noise, and sometimes a combination of

soft and loud) were fed.

In the latter case, as compared with the former, straight men had blinks that were 40 % less vigorous. In the case of straight women the drop was 13 %. Lesbians dropped 33 % which, statistically, made them more similar to straight men than straight women. Gay men were also intermediate, although in their case the difference was not statistically significant. Even in this apparently trivial matter, it seems,lesbianshave male-like brains. So what is going on? By default, people are female. Without influence of testosterone in the womb, a fetus will develop into a girl. The way testosterone acts to turn a fetus male is still poorly understood. It seems likely, though, that different organs respond independently to the hormone, and may do so at different times. Hormonal surges at critical moments could thus cause particular organs in an otherwise female body to become "male". (A lull in hormone products might have the opposite effect.) If the organ concerned is the brain, the result is more male-like behaviour including, possibly, male-type sexual preferences. Previous research has provided some evidence for this idea. Lesbians, for instance, are more accurate throwers of objects such as darts than straight women. In this they resemble straight men in a way that has nothing to do with sexual preference. And tissues other than the brain's may be affected,too. On average, lesbians ring fingers that are longer than their indexfingers, a feature that is typical of men but not of heterosexual women. In that context, a difference in the blink of an eye is no surprise at all.

1. VocabularyNotes:

1) blink – мигать, закрывать глаза

2) startle – пугать, поразить

3) masculine – мужской, мужеподобный

4) vigour – сила, мощь, живость, энергичность

5) prime – зд. воздействовать

6) wireup – связывать, соединять

7) straightandgay – гетеросексуальные люди и гомосексуалисты

8) default – бездействие, пассивность, неявка, отсутствие

9) fetus – плод, зародыш

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10) surge – скачок, колебание



11) lull – перерыв, затишье

12) tissue – биол. ткань

13) ringfinger – безымянный палец

14) index finger – указательныйпалец

2. Answer the following questions.

1) What observation has made some East London specialists support the idea that homosexuality is an inborn characteristic rather than acquired one?

2) What exactly differs between the sexes startled by an unexpected noise?

3) What experiment was waged by Dr. Rahman and his colleagues ?

4) What way does testosterone act?

5) What features are lesbians and straight women characterized by?

3. Make up a summary of the text.

Task 22

Read the text and do exercises to it.

Are the Rules being Bent Again?

A judge says an accused terrorist can call the witnesses he wants. No, he can’t…

A federal judge has ruled that prosecutors may not seek the death penalty against Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person in the United States to have been charged so far in connection with the September 11th terror attacks. Nor may they present any evidence linking this so-called "20th hijacker" with the planning or execution of the attacks.

The ruling, by a district judge, Leonie Brinkema, came after the federal

government refused to allow Mr. Moussaoui to question al-Qaeda suspects who, he claims, could prove his innocence. The government says it will appeal . Mr. Moussaoui, a 35-year-old French man of Moroccan descent, was first arrested in the United States in August 2001 on minor immigration charges. It was not until after the

suicide hijackings the next month that investigators began to take a keener interest in the Muslim trainee pilot being held in a Minnesota jail. Three months later Mr Moussaoui was charged on six counts of conspiracy – four of them punishable by death – to commit acts of terrorism, aircraft piracy, use of weapons of mass

destruction, destruction of aircraft, murder of government employees and destruction of government property.

Although he admitted being a member of al-Qaeda, Mr. Moussaoui claimed he knew nothing about the attacks until after they had осcurred. In an attempt to prove his innocence, he sought to question hree key al-Qaeda prisoners, including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the alleged mastermind of 9/11, and Mustafa Ahmed, its alleged financier.

In two rulings earlier this year, Judge Brinkema ordered that he should be allowed to question by satellite link the three men, all being held at secret locations outside the United States. The government has refused to comply, arguing that national security could be jeopardised by the disclosure of confidential information.

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In her latest ruling, delivered on October 2nd, Judge Brinkema said the government could not "maintain this capital prosecution while simultaneously refusing to produce witnesses who could, at a minimum, help the defendant avoid a sentence of death". But she refused to take the widely expected step of dismissing all charges against Mr.



Moussaoui, who could face life imprisonment if convicted of the charges still pending. Her desire to keep the case under civilian jurisdiction appears to have been among her reasons for wishing to continue with a truncated trial. "This case can be resolved in an open and public forum," she declared.

Among the options now facing the government is the possibility of transferring the trial to a military tribunal whose rules, including the right to extensive hearings behind closed doors, would be likely to help the prosecution. But this would attract widespread criticism. The government is already under attack for its treatment of some 660 al-Qaeda and Taliban suspects held at Guantanamo Bay, an American naval base in Cuba, where they are supposed to be awaiting trial before special

military courts. Although some have now been detained for over 21 months, no charges have yet been brought. Nor have any of the prisoners, who include citizens of some of America's closest allies, had access to a lawyer or a consular official.

Despite the criticism, the American government insists the Guantanamo Bay detainees are not prisoners of war but "enemy combatants", who are being held outside strictly-defined United States territory (the Guantanamo base is leased in perpetuity from Cuba) and therefore have no rights under either the Geneva Conventions or the American constitution. Last month Donald Rumsfeld, the secretary of defence, seemed to confirm suspicions that the government does not

wish to bring these prisoners to trial. "Our interest," he said, "is not in trying them and letting them out. Our interest is in-during this global war on terror-keeping them off the streets, and so that's what's taking place." But that war could go on for a very long time, perhaps for decades.

The government insists the Guantanamo prisoners are being treated "humanely". All now have individual indoor cells, proper beds, washing facilities and toilets. In July six of them, including two Britons and an Australian, were said to be eligible for trial. But, since then, nothing. No charges have been brought and no trial date set.

1. Vocabularynotes:

1) rule – постановлять, решать (в судебном порядке)

2) prosecutor – обвинитель

3) hijacker – воздушный пират, бандит

4) suspect – зд. подозреваемый

5) alleged – предполагаемый, обвиняемый

6) mastermind – руководитель, вдохновитель

7) comply – подчиняться, уступать

8) defendant – подсудимый, обвиняемый

9) pending – предстоящий, ожидающий решения

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10) treatment – обращение, обхождение



11) detain – арестовывать, содержать под стражей

12) try – зд. допрашивать, привлечь к суду

13) eligible – подходящий, приемлемый

2. Statements for discussion.

1. Al-Oaeda is a very potent, well-financed, militant organization, responsible for a lot of suicide hijackings.

2. An accused terrorist can’t call the witnesses he wants because of threat to the US national security, caused by possible disclosure of confidential information.

3. Military court provides detainees with less rights than civilian court.

4. Keeping some 660 al-Qaeda and Taliban suspects at Guantanamo Bay may be “Solomon’s decision” of the American Government.

5. Prisoners of all kinds should be treated humanely.

3. Give a summary of the text.

Task 23

Read the text and do exercises to it.



Breathe or be Strangled

If Eskimos have dozens of words for snow, Germans have as any for bureaucracy. The most popular is Amtsschimmel, a word of obscure origin that translates roughly as “the office horse”. The government declares that it is bent on chasing these clodhoppers out of Germany. But has it any more chance of success than in the past? The Institute for the German Economy, the research arm of the country’s business associations, hopes so, if only because the economy might be strangled to death unless red tape is loosened. Germans are fed up with forms and rules. Pollsters at the Allensbach Institute say that as many as 90 % of Germans have had rows with bureaucrats, up from 64 % in 1978. Bild, Germany’s biggest tabloid,

recently sent out a reporter in search of ridiculous rules. One example: a tailor who had to put up a sign saying “fire extinguisher” next to (guess what) her fire extinguisher, to produce a thick folder with all regulations relevant to her business, to raise her work table by ten centimeters, to buy a special emergency kit, and to check if her only employee was allergic to nickel – at a cost of Ҳ400 ($428).

Germany is, in short, one of the most rule-bound countries in the world. And that is bad news for the economy, particularly for entrepreneurs hoping to set up in business.A new World Bank study, “DoingBusiness in 2004”, illustrates the problem . The study shows that it takes an average of 45 days to register a new firm in Germany, compared with 18 in Britain and only four in America. The process is also cheaper in America, Britain, Canada and France than in Germany.

The government has launched a “masterplan for reducing bureaucracy”, listing dozens of cases where archaic rules should be scrapped or simplified.

45

It recently brought in a bill to do away with such workplace regulations as where to put light switches or the shape of rubbish bins. The government has also chosen three regions where some laws will be suspended while local and federal agencies try out



alternatives.

Yet it will take years for Germany to match America and Britain. Germans may inveigh against bureaucrats, but they have a soft spot for state mollycoddling. In any case, over a third of the members of the federal parliament are former civil servants, hardly likely to be in the forefront of a campaign to cut bureaucracy. Even some businessmen are ambivalent, for regulation can be useful barrier to competition. The supposedly free market opposition has attacked government plans to loosen laws protecting guilds of architects and craftsmen from competition.

The language of officialdom hardly helps. A recent example of cutting red tape was a law to speed up approval for building roads. Its name: VerkehrswegeplanungsbeschleunigunVerkehrsweggsgesetz.

1. Vocabulary notes:

1) red tape – волокита, бюрократизм

2) skirmish – схватка, столкновение

3) strangle – подавлять, душить

4) clodhopper – увалень, неповоротливый

5) pollster – лицо, проводящее опрос общественного мнения

6) folder – папка, проспект

7) scrap – выбрасывать (за ненадобностью)

8) inveigh – выступать против

9) softspot – уязвимое место

10) mollycoddle – баловать, нежить

11) ambivalent – двойственный

12) officialdom – чиновничество, бюрократический аппарат

2. Statements for discussion.

1) Germans are fed up with forms and rules much more than Russians are.

2) Too many rules is bad for any economy.

3) It is easy to do business in Germany in a civilized way, for business culture has had long history there.

4) Germans are ambivalent concerning cutting their bureaucracy. Prove that.

5) Red tape in Russia. Could you give some examples?

6) Business culture in Russia. Has it made any progress recently?

3. Give a summary of the text.

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Task 24


Read the text and do exercises to it.

Spying on the Spies

Throughout the 1990s, Peru’s National Intelligence Service was synonymous with VladimiroMontesinos, the sinister spy chief who spun a web of corruption and intimidation from the heart of the authoritarian government of Alberto Fujimori. Since July 2001, Peru has been governed democratically under President Alejandro Toledo, and Mr. Montesinos is now in jail. But the intelligence service remains in turmoil-just when once again Peru needs one.

Last month, Mr. Toledo sacked the service’s head, Alfonso Panizo, a retired admiral, the fourth man to hold the job in two years. His departure came after it had emerged that one of the president’s phone calls had been tapped, and the tape of the call given to a scandal-hungry television programme. Another television show then accused the intelligence service of spying on several awkward journalist. Mr. Panizo denied the charges; his agents were simply trying to discover who has leaking secrets to the media, he said.

The new intelligence chief is Daniel Mora, a retired general but also a member of Mr. Toledo’s Peru Possible party (its secretary for ethics, no less). His appointment has stirred controversy: opponents say that the intelligence service should serve the state, rather than the governing party. But the bigger problem is that the service needs thorough reform.

Mr. Montesinos still casts a long shadow. He turned the service from a small group of academics and analysts into a lavish outfit packed with military men engaged in dirty tricks. Sophisticated monitoring equipment, some donated by America’s Central Intelligence Agency to fight drugs, was diverted to political and commercial use. Mr. Montesinos routinely tapped the phones of politicians, journalists, top businessman and judges; he even surreptitiously recorded some of

Mr. Fujimori’s private meetings.

Mr. Toledo’s government has slashed the service’s budget and personnel (though in it still overstaffed). The perverse result is that most of the monitoring

equipment now seems to be in the hands of private security companies, some run by former army cronies of Mr. Montesinos. In effect, telephone-tapping has been privatized; the results are leaked to pursue political vendettas.

Apart from poisoning politics, all this is bad for public safety. Peru has real security threats that need watching. Drug exports are rising, as is kidnapping. Though nothing like the threat they used to be, small groups of Shining Path guerrillas roam remote areas. The country need spies – but honest ones.

1. Vocabulary notes:

1) sinister – зловещий, темный

2) spin (spun, spun) – плести, составлять

47

3) intimidation – запугивание, шантаж



4) turmoil – беспорядок, смятение

5) tap – зд. подслушивать

6) controvercy – спор, полемика

7) lavish – расточительный

8) divert – отвлекать, уводить в сторону

9) surreptitiously – исподтишка

10) slash – зд. урезать, сократить

11) crony – близкий, закадычный друг

12) guerrilla – партизан

13) roam – скитаться, бродить

2. Statements for discussion.

1) VladimiroMontesinos is known to have been a master of the dark arts.

2) The appointment of the new intelligence chief Daniel Mora has been approved unanimously in Peru.

3) Donated by America’s Central Intelligence Agency sophisticated equipment to fight drugs was used perversely.

4) Public safety in Peru is reported to be far from normal state.

5) Each country should have spy web to provide security for its citizens.

3. Give a summary of the text.

48

Часть III Текстыдляреферирования



Task 1 Read the texts and study the summaries to the text

Text1 Laser lidar

Laser-based lidar (light detection and ranging) has also proven to be an

important tool for oceanographers. While satellite pictures of the ocean surface

provide insight into overall ocean health and hyperspectral imaging provides more

insight, lidar is able to penetrate beneath the surface and obtain more specific data,

even in murky coastal waters. In addition, lidar is not limited to cloudless skies or

daylight hours.

“One of the difficulties of passive satellite-based systems is that there is water-

surface reflectance, water-column influence, water chemistry, and also the influence

of the bottom”, said Chuck Bostater, director of the remote sensing lab at Florida Tech

University (Melbourne, FL). “In shallow waters we want to know the quality of the

water and remotely sense the water column without having the signal contaminated by

the water column or the bottom”.

A typical lidar system comprises a laser transmitter, receiver telescope,

photodetectors, and range-resolving detection electronics. In coastal lidar studies, a

532-nm laser is typically used because it is well absorbed by the constituents in the

water and so penetrates deeper in turbid or dirty water (400 to 490 nm penetrates

deepest in clear ocean water). The laser transmits a short pulse of light in a specific

direction. The light interacts with molecules in the air, and the molecules send a small

fraction of the light back to telescope, where it is measured by the photodetectors.

Abstract (Summary)

Laser lidar. “Laser Focus World”, 2003, v 46, №3, p45.

The text focuses on the use of laser-based lidar in oceanography.

The ability of lidar to penetrate into the ocean surface to obtain specific data in

murky coastal waters is specially mentioned.

Particular attention is given to the advantage of laser-based lidars over passive

satellite-based systems iN obtaining signals not being contaminated by the water

column or the bottom.

A typical lidar system is described with emphasis on the way it works.

This information may be of interest to research teams engaged in studying

shallow waters.

49

Text 2 A Spy with my flying eye



A little lateral thinking has transformed the prospects for tiny robot planes

1. A TINY, pilotless spy plane that can be fired from a cannon is under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The minuscule aircraft is designed to emerge from the case of an artillery shell and fly over enemy territory, sending back both video pictures of the target and its coordinates.

2. Trials this summer showed that the pane, called the Wide Area Surveillance Projectile (WASP), is airworthy and could survive being blasted out of a cannon, says

John Deyst, professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT and principal investigator on the research project. So the team is continuing to work on it.

3. The WASP is the latest twist in the development of expendable drones that can fly over enemy territory. Some are already in use, but they have to be launched from a runway some distance behind the front line, taking up to an hour to rich their target. What’s unique about the WASP, says Deyst, is that it will – hopefully – be cheap, have a fast response time, and be controlled by a local commander.

4. The aircraft is meant to be packed into an artillery shell case that has a diameter of 12.7 centimeters. Its wings, stabilization fins and propeller fold back into its fuselage.

5. The shell could be fired from an artillery piece or a naval gun. When it is over its target – which could be as far as 20 kilometers away – a parachute will emerge, yanking the craft out of the shell (see Diagram).The spring-loaded wings then extend to a span of about a meter, at which point a diesel engine switches on. The plane will hold enough fuel for about half an hour’s flying. It will send back video images of the target, along with its coordinates, obtained from Global Positioning System satellites.

6. Deyst’s team faced two major technical challenges: one was to design a plane that could fold into a shell and still operate after surviving the huge acceleration of being fired from a gun. The other was to make the plane airworthy.

7. The team tackled the two problems separately. An unpowered model has now survived simulated firings. And a lightly larger has been tested for airworthiness. Deyst says the next challenge is to build a single model that survives both tests. The main emphasis now is on developing electronic components that are robust enough to survive the firing forces, he says.

8. Work on the WASP project has been carried out over the past two years with funding from MIT and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Now, Deyst says, he is looking for more funding from the USA Army, Navy, or the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to continue developing the drone.

9. The MIT team is not alone thinking along these lines: Science Applications International of San Diego, California, is working on a similar project, with the aim of carrying a bomb or other payload. Since the aircraft are designed to be expendable, one key factor is keeping the cost down to about $20 000, says Mark Roth, one of the researchers.

KurtKleiner

50

Аннотация



[Разведка с помощью беспилотного самолета]. I spy with my flying eye. Kleiner K. «NewScientist», 1998, 19/XI, vol. 159, №2152, 22 (англ.).

Сообщается о разработке нового небольшого самолета-шпиона в Массачусетском технологическом институте (США). Приводятся особенности конструкции, технические характеристики и преимущества по сравнению с известными аналогами. Кратко отмечаются технологические трудности создания опытной модели лабораторного аппарата.

Abstract

The article describes a tiny, pilotless spy plane under development at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The design features, principle of operation, flight performance and its advantages over expendable drones already in use are presented. Twpmajortechnicalchallengesarebrieflytouchedupon.

Реферат

Кратко описана конструкция нового небольшого самолета-разведчика Массачусетского технологического института (MIT, США). Летательный аппарат предназначен для передачи видео изображения целей и точных координат противника со спутника системы GPS. Аппарат располагают внутри артиллерийского снаряда диаметром 12,7 см и выстреливают из сухопутной или морской пушки на дистанцию до 20 км. Над целью снаряд освобождается от снаряда при помощи парашюта, срабатывают пружинные механизмы раскрытия крыльев и пропеллера, включается дизельный двигатель. Максимальный размах крыльев составляет около 1 м, запас топлива рассчитан на работу двигателя в течение получаса. Команда разработчиков столкнулась с двумя техническими проблемами – обеспечением прочности конструкции при запуске, особенно электронной аппаратуры, и габаритов. Ориентировочная стоимость составит 20 000$.



Илл. 2. Б. Иванов

Text 1



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