Учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка "english sounds and intonation" для студентов I и II курсов



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Exercise 1. Read the following sentences paying attention to the intonation:


Exercise 2. Read the following sentences paying attention to the intonation:



Шкала с нарушенной постепенностью (Broken Descending Scale). Постепенно нисходящая ступенчатая шкала может произноситься таким образом, что понижающее движение тона голоса может быть нарушено на каком-то ударном слоге. Этот слог обычно произносится выше, чем предшествующие слоги. Такая шкала называется постепенно нисходящей шкалой с нарушенной постепенностью, ударный слог, звучащий на более высоком уровне, чем предшествующие слоги, произносится с так называемым специальным подъемом (Special Rise). Нарушение нисходящего движения тона голоса может происходить на любом ударном слоге шкалы, за исключением первого ударного слога. В тексте шкала с нарушенной постепенностью обозначается знаком [↑] перед слогом, который произносится выше, чем предшествующие слоги:

She 'went to the 'post 'office ↑every ˋday.

Шкала с нарушенной постепенностью употребляется в тех случаях, когда необходимо выделить какое-то слово синтагмы. Она употребляется, в основном, в монологической речи, в неэмоциональной диалогической речи, при чтении описательных текстов.

Exercise 3. Read the sentences according to the model.

a)

1. These stories are as old as the hills. ( Low Fall)



2. It has hit him hard. (High Fall)

3. Are you feeling better yet? (Low Rise)

4. Did she really paint a self-portrait? (High Rise)

5. Carter is accustomed to his eyeglasses. (Descending Scale)

6. It wasn’t easy for Sarah to adjust to her early class. (Broken Scale)

b)

1. They pulled Paul to pieces. ( Low Fall)



2. Tony oughtn’t to stay out late. (High Fall)

3. Must Mother make a mountain out of a molehill? (Low Rise)

4. Frank’s anxious to start earning his living? (High Rise)

5. Face front and listen carefully. (Descending Scale)

6. She watches television usually, not occasionally. (Broken Scale)

c)

1. One never knows with the weather. ( Low Fall)



2. There is neither rhyme nor reason in it. (High Fall)

3. Will you please lay the table? (Low Rise)

4. Anything damaging in sitting and smoking? (High Rise)

5. Rosa arrived on the stroke of three. (Descending Scale)

6. Rose always dramatises things. (Broken Scale)

d)

1. No sweet without some sweat. ( Low Fall)



2. Wishes don’t wash dishes. (High Fall)

3. Will you please fill in the form? (Low Rise)

4. James joined the geography society? (High Rise)

5. The sweater will wear well. (Descending Scale)

6. Try to be loyal and see the boy’s point. (Broken Scale)

e)

1. They found themselves about the town tower. ( Low Fall)



2. What a charming child! (High Fall)

3. Could you bring some chalk, Cherry? (Low Rise)

4. You really think Mrs. Smith is a remarkable woman? (High Rise)

5. Make a margin on the left of the page. (Descending Scale)

6. I’ve given Vic the best of advice. (Broken Scale)

f)

1. The name slipped my memory. ( Low Fall)



2. Fight fire with fire. (High Fall)

3. Can you hear me? (Low Rise)

4. Any news? No news? (High Rise)

5. I’ve never given Ivy a thought. (Descending Scale)

6. Vest is my only surviving relative. (Broken Scale)

g)

1. Thornton's voice thrilled through the hall. ( Low Fall)



2. Every man has his hobby-horse. (High Fall)

3. Have you ever had a toothache? (Low Rise)

4. You think she behaved professionally? (High Rise)

5. I’m going to join the swimming team. (Descending Scale)

6. We’ll have to wear formal clothes to party. (Broken Scale)

h)

1. I’ve never lost the love of my job. ( Low Fall)



2. A thousand thanks to you both. (High Fall)

3. Will we meet tomorrow? (Low Rise)

4. Hilda is head over heels in love with him? (High Rise)

5. Your casual allusion caused confusion. (Descending Scale)

6. Luke always travels by land. (Broken Scale)

UNIT 3. ФРАЗОВОЕ УДАРЕНИЕ. SENTENCE STRESS. ЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ УДАРЕНИЕ. LOGICAL STRESS.

Фразовое ударение выделяет одни слова в предложении от других. В предложении, как правило, ударны знаменательные слова (существительные, смысловые глаголы, прилагательные, наречия, числительные, вопросительные местоимения, указательные местоимения в роли подлежащего, притяжательные местоимения в абсолютной форме). Безударны обычно служебные слова (вспомогательные и модальные глаголы, если с них не начинается предложение, союзы, артикли, частицы и большинство местоимений). Например:

'Give your ˋreasons.

'What can you 'say about ˎScotland?

It's a 'family ˎtradition.

She is ˎsix.

Логическое ударение -- это особое средство выделения какого-либо слова, используемого в качестве интонационного средства противопоставления или усиления. Слово с логическим ударением приобретает значения «именно это, а не то», «именно такой, а не другой» и т. д. Ударение на слове с логическим ударением оказывается настолько сильным, что все стоящие за ним слова до самого конца синтагмы оказываются безударными. Например:

I ˎcan read this text. ˎI can read this text.

Практически при произнесении каждого предложения может быть столько вариантов логического ударения, сколько в нем слов. Например:

My 'holiday 'starts toˎmorrow. My 'holiday ˎstarts tomorrow.

My ˎholiday starts tomorrow. ˎMy holiday starts tomorrow.



UNIT 4. ИНТОНАЦИЯ УТВЕРЖДЕНИЙ. INTONATION OF STATEMENTS.

Model: ˎYes. ˎNo. 'My 'name's 'Jackie ˎRose. I 'don't 'like 'this ˎstory.

Категоричные, спокойные, серьезные, рассудительные утверждения обычно произносятся низким нисходящим тоном. Например:

He is a ˎdoctor. I have 'two ˎchildren.

She can speak ˎSpanish.



Exercise 1. Read the following sentences.

1. Ann is a University student. 2. She has two brothers. 3. Mary is almost twenty. 4. My mother is a housewife. 5. They both came from quite large families. 6. Agriculture is their main occupation. 7. I live in a university flat. 8. She wants to study agriculture at the University next year. 9. It's not a very wise choice. 10. I read it carefully. 11. You can come to lunch tomorrow. 12. The children are at school now. 13. He wasn't right. 14. You must go now. 15. He didn't see her yesterday.



Exercise 2. Listen to the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them to your fellow-students.

1. My name's Peter. 2. I am twenty-one. 3. He is a second-year student. 4. We have a very large family. 5. My sisters' names are Helen and Olga. 6. My younger brother's name is Mike. 7. Helen and Olga are students. 8. Mike is a pupil. 9. My mother is a doctor. 10. My fattier is a teacher. 11. He teaches Russian. 12. I like them very much.



Exercise 3. Confirm the following statements according to the model. Use Low Fall.

Model: 'Aberdeen .Uni'versity is ˎold.|| -

ˎYes,| 'Aberdeen .Uni'versity is ˎold.||

1. Scotland is a mountainous region. 2. Aberdeen is a small town. 3. There are many lochs in Scotland. 4. Scotland is very bleak in winter. 5. It is a very wise choice. 6. We are involved in farming. 7. Mary wants to be a secretary. 8. Peter is fond of music. 9. Her family is slightly larger than average. 10. Her birthday is on the tenth of May. 11. She has two sisters. 12. Mary comes from England.



Exercise 4. Listen to the text. Mark, the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it.

My full name is Jackie Rose. I am twenty-one. I am a fourth-year student of the French and Russian Department at Aberdeen University. I live in a university flat with five other girls. On week-ends I usually go home. My parents live on a farm in the north of Scotland. My parents aren't old. My mother is 48. My father is 5Î. He is three years older than my mother. I have two sisters. My sisters' names are Margaret and Jocelyn. I have a brother. My brother's name is William. William is the youngest in the family. He is only sixteen. He is tall and strong. He wants to be a farmer. We are a happy family.



Exercise 5. Listen to the text. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the text for test reading.

This is my family: my wife, my son, my daughter and I. I am Mr. Black. My wife is Mrs. Black. I am Mrs. Black's husband. I am a man. My wife is a woman. We have two children, a boy and a girl. The boy's name is John. He's twelve years old. The girl's name is Mary. She is still quite young. She is only eight. She is four years younger than John and he is four years older than she. Mary is the youngest in the family and I am the oldest.



Exercise 6. Make up your own story of the same kind.

UNIT 5. ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ. INTONATION OF IMPERATIVES.

Model: ˎRead. 'Read the 'text aˎgain.

'Cheer ˏup. Conˏtinue.

Обычно команды, приказы, инструкции произносятся нисходящим тоном, а просьбы — восходящим. Например:

'Bring me a ˎchair. 'Bring me a ˏchair.

'Don't ˎcry. 'Don't ˏcry.

'Shut the ˎdoor. 'Shut the ˏdoor.

Exercise 1. Read the commands and requests. Observe the intonation they are pronounced with.

a). ˎGo. ˎTry. ˎStay. ˎWait. ˎWrite. ˎPhone. ˎHere. ˎStop it. ˎBring it.

b). 'Open the 'books at 'page ˎ30. Tran'scribe and in'tone the ˎsentences. 'Learn the 'text by ˎheart. 'Don't ˎlook at me. 'Speak ˎlouder. 'Don't 'make misˎtakes. 'Always co'rrect your miˎstakes. 'Let him 'speak ˎlouder. 'Ask ˎquestions. 'Read the ˎtext. 'Sit ˎdown. 'Take a ˎpen.

c) 'Write to her aˋgain then. 'Don't 'say anything at ˋall. 'Come as 'soon as you ˋcan. 'Let's 'go ˋhome. 'Don't 'go aˋway. 'Shut the ˋdoor.

d) Conˏtinue. 'Go ˏon. 'Go aˏhead. 'Don't ˏmention it. Be ˏcareful. Your ˏpassport, please. 'Hold it ˏcarefully. 'Don't 'take it too 'much to ˏheart. 'Cheer ˏup. 'Don't ˏworry. 'Don't be ˏlong. 'Let me ˏshow you. 'Give it to ˏMummy, Johnnie. 'Now 'don't 'stay 'too ˏlate. 'Do 'bring him 'round to ˏsee us. 'Pass me the ˏsalt, please. 'Work ˏhard. 'Don't be ˏsilly. 'Buy me a ˏnewspaper. 'Wait a ˏmoment. 'Let's 'try aˏgain. 'Open the ˏwindow. 'Have a ˏheart. 'Don't be aˏfraid.

Exercise 2. Ask your fellow students:

a) in a form of commands;

b) in a form of requests.

a) 1. to open the books at page 12. 2. to translate Text 5. 3. to underline all the verbs in the sentence. 4. to read the sentence aloud. 5. to correct the mistakes in the test. 6. to render Text 1. 7. to open the window. 8. not to look at you.

b) 1. to wait a moment. 2. to open the book. 3. to fetch some chalk. 4. to repeat reading rules. 5. to write a letter to his friend. 6. to go to the cinema. 7, to find a new pen. 8. to cheer, up. 9. not to ask many questions. 10. not to read aloud.

Exercise 3. Practise the dialogues and memorize them.

1. — Let's go to the theatre.

— Fine. Phone Ann and invite her too. Tell her to meet us at 6.

— Right. Shall I do it now?

— Don't be silly. Do it when you can.

2. — Will you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square?

— Certainly. Go down Regent Street to Piccadilly Circus. Turn to the left then.

— Thank you. Is there a bus?

— There's sure to be. Ask the policeman over there.

Exercise 4. Make up your own dialogues of the same kind.

Exercise 5. Play the game. Divide the group into two teams. The leader commands: "Turn your heads to the right." The rest of the students must fulfill his command. If they fail to do it, they will be out of game. The list of commands:

Turn your head to the left/to the right; Bend your body to the left/to the right; Forward; Hands up/down; Open/Close your eyes; Put your hands on your head; Right hand up; Left hand down; Touch your right ear, etc.



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