Учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка "english sounds and intonation" для студентов I и II курсов


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Model: 'Are you 'ready to ˏleave?

'Can you ˏcome?

Общие вопросы обычно произносятся восходящим тоном. Например:

'Shall we 'take a ˏtaxi? 'Can you 'come aˏgain?

'Did you ˏmeet him?

Exercise I. Read the sentences according to the given model.

Model: Is 'Kate a ˏteacher? 'Do you 'like ˏmusic?

1. Is Peter twenty? 2. Is your name John? 3. Do you speak English? 4. Do you study at the Institute? 5. Do you live in the hostel? 6. Does she like to work in the garden? 7. Does she know Mary? 8. Is your family large? 9. Are your brothers teachers? 10. Is it difficult to find a job in London? 11. Does Helen study at a local comprehensive school? 12. Are you a pupil?

Exercise II. Listen to your fellow-student reading these questions. Tell him what his errors in intonation are.

1. Are you eighteen? 2. Are you a first-year student? 3. Do you study at the Moscow Teacher Training University? 4. Do you know English well? 5. Is your future specialty history? 6. Are you a future teacher? 7. Do you live with your parents? 8. Is your University far from your home? 9. Will it take you an hour to get to the University? 10. Did you have four exams last term?

Exercise III. Ask to repeat the following statements using general questions as in the given model.

Model: 'This is a 'new ˎexercise-book. -

ˏSorry, | 'is this a 'new ˏexercise-book?

1. This is a large park. 2. This is an interesting book. 3. This is Peter's brother. 4. This is her younger sister. 5. This is their new flat. 6. This is a comfortable arm-chair. 7. This is a student. 8. This is his wife. 9. This is their teacher. 10. This is exercise three. 11. This is a difficult text.

Exercise IV. Ask general questions using the given model.

Model: My 'father is 'not a ˎfarmer. -

'Is your 'farther a ˏfarmer?

1. I am not a university student. 2. Yes, my mother is a secretary. 3. Peter hasn't a family of his own. 4. Olga is fond of music. 5. I study at the Institute. 6. Her name is Mary. 7. I have no grandparents. 8. They live in London. 9. Ann is ten. 10. She doesn't like coffee. 11. She prefers tea.

Exercise V. Listen to the dialogues and reproduce them. Observe the intonation of general questions.

1. — Am I a teacher? — Yes, you are.

— Are you a student? — Yes. I am.

— Are you English? — No, I am not.

— Do you speak English? — Yes, I do.

—- Does your friend speak — Yes, he does, but only a little. English?

2. — We want to go on a hike on Sunday. Will you join us?

— Certainly. Shall we go to Golitsino? The place is delightful.

— Yes. Shall we take Alice with us?

— Of course. Can you meet her at the station?

— Yes.

Exercise IX. Read the questions and answer them.

1. Are you quite well-prepared for your exams? 2. Shall we write a test tomorrow? 3. Are you ready to go? 4. Can you do it? 5. Do you have time to go in for sports? 6. Does your brother play the piano? 7. Is it raining? 8. Is your mother Russian? 9. Will you invite me to your evening party? 10. Is Paris as large as London? 11. Do you live in London? 12. Does Peter smoke?

Exercise X. Read the dialogue and act it out.

Were You at Home Last Night?

Sergeant: Good evening, Sir. Mr Holmes?

Holmes: Good evening, officer. Yes, that's right — John Holmes. Won't you come in?

Sergeant: Thank you. May I ask you a few questions?

Holmes: Yes, of course. Won't you sit down?

Sergeant: Thank you. It's about last night. Were you at home, Mr Holmes?

Holmes: Yes, Sergeant, I was, actually. I wasn't feeling very well.

Sergeant: Were you alone?

Holmes: Er, yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend.

Sergeant: Did you go out at all?

Holmes: No, I stayed in all evening — that is, except for a few minutes when I popped out to post a letter.

Sergeant: Do you remember what time this was?

Holmes: Yes, it was about — um — half past eight.

Sergeant: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you — er — popped out for 5 minutes to post your letter?

Holmes: No, I don't think so. Oh yes, just a minute. The caretaker said 'good evening'.

Sergeant: The caretaker, Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes, the caretaker was murdered last night.


В предложениях, начинающихся оборотом "there + to be", обстоятельство места, как правило, неударно или полуударно и не образует отдельную синтагму. Обстоятельство места, стоящее перед оборотом "there + to be", обычно произносится восходящим тоном и выделяется в отдельную синтагму. Например:

There is a ˎtable on the left.

On the ˏleft | there is a ˎtable.

Exercise I. Read the sentences, observe the correct pronunciation.

1. There are twelve months in a year. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. There are sixty minutes in an hour. 4. Is there a farm beyond the forest? 5. Are there any mistakes in your dictation? 6. On my table there are two exercise-books and a text-book. 7. In a fortnight there are two weeks. 8. In a month there are four weeks. 9. Are there thirty days in November? 10. Is there a blackboard in the room? 11. There are some flowers on the window. 12. Under the window there is a radiator.

Exercise II. Confirm the following statements using "there + to be".

1. You've got a book in front of you. 2. You've got many foreign books in your library. 3. You've got various animals at home. 4. She has got three mistakes in her test. 5. You've got no laboratory on the floor. 6. She's got no mistakes in her reading. 7. You can see a farm near the forest. 8. You can see a lot of interesting pictures in this book. 9. You can see nobody in this room. 10. You can see a large family in this picture. 11. You can't see any mistakes in her test. 12. You can see many countries on this map.

Exercise III. Read the questions and answer them.

1. Are there windows in your classroom? 2. Is there a blackboard on the wall? 3. Is there any chalk at the blackboard? 4. Is there a duster at the blackboard? 5. Is there a bookcase in the room? 6. Are there any pictures on the wall? 7. Is there a map on the wall? 8. Is there a tape-recorder on the table? 9. Are there many desks in your classroom? 10. Are there many books on your table? 11. Are there any flowers on the window? 12. Are there any flowers on the teacher's table? 13. Is there a teacher in the room?

Exercise IV. Read the text and retell it.

Let's have a look at this picture of our classroom. On the left there are two large windows. On the windows there are some nice flowers. Under the window there's a radiator. There is a blackboard in front of the desks. There is some chalk and a duster at the blackboard. There are ten desks in our classroom. On the desks there are tape-recorders and two tapes. There is a bookcase with many books on the right. To the left of the bookcase there is a large map.

Exercise V. (a) Describe your room at home or in your hostel, (b) Describe your house.


Models: You 'met him at the ˎclub, | ˎdidn't you? ||

You 'met him at the ˎclub, | ˏdidn't you? ||

Разделительные вопросы состоят из двух интонационных групп. Первая интонационная группа обычно произносится с нисходящим тоном. Интонация второй синтагмы зависит от отношения говорящего. Если говорящий не уверен в ответе и ждет мнения собеседника, то вторая интонационная группа произносится с восходящим тоном. Например:

You'll 'stay to ˋtea, | ˏwon't you?

Если говорящий уверен в ответе и не ждет его, то вторая часть произносится с нисходящим тоном. Например:

You'll 'stay to ˋtea, | ˎwon't you?

Exercise I. In the following sentences read the statements and the tags with a fall. (The speaker expects the listener to agree with him.)

1. There are 18 faculties at our University, aren't there? 2. Our University is the oldest in our country, isn't it? 3. You finished school last year, didn't you? 4. He's got a new job, hasn't he? 5. That was most unfair, wasn't it? 6. We must hurry, mustn't we? 7. He teaches English, doesn't he? 8. He always has lunch at one, doesn't he? 9. You don't believe me, do you? 10. We shall see each other again, shan't we? 11. We had no choice, had we? 12. I was right, wasn't I? 13. Today's the tenth, isn't it? 14. She has three children, hasn't she? 15. I could try again, couldn't I?

Exercise II. In the following sentences read the statements with a fall and the tags with a rise. (The speaker is asking the listener's opinion.)

1. You didn't tell anybody, did you? 2. You're taking the exam in June, aren't you? 3. It's quite impossible, isn't it? 4. She'll be starting school next year, won't she? 5. I asked you before, didn't I? 6. I suppose that is true, isn't it? 7. Everyone agreed, didn't they? 8. It's going to rain, isn't it? 9. No one was hurt, were they? 10. There was no answer, wasn't there? 1Г. She never waits, does she? 12. I'd better go, hadn't I? 13. You do smoke, don't you? 14. We last met in March, didn't we? 15. They were too late, weren't they?

Exercise III. Read the sentences according to the given model. Observe the difference in meaning.

Model: It's 'very ˎdifficult, | ˎisn't it? ||

It's 'very ˎdifficult, | ˏisn't it? ||

1. There is a new time-table for this term, isn't there? 2. You don't know this student, do you? 3. We shall have two seminars today, shan't we? 4. There were many unknown words in this text, weren't there? 5. All the students study foreign languages, don't they? 6. You live in the hostel, don't you? 7. You have four exams this term, don't you? 8. The Institute course lasts five years, doesn't it? 9. You study at the historical faculty, don't you? 10. She is a bright student, isn't she?

Exercise IV. Complete the following sentences making them disjunctive questions. (The speaker is asking the listener's opinion.)

Model: She is ˎten, | ˏisn't she?

1. Jackie doesn't study at the Russian department. 2. Your University was awarded two orders. 3. The students are usually interested in the history of their University. 4. Its history dates back to November 1872. 5. She passed her exams with excellent marks. 6. There are many new words in Text 3. 7. There is no laboratory at our faculty. 8. Your University has become a great scientific centre of methodical and pedagogical activities. 9. Mary wants to stay at home. 10. It was very cold. It's not hot. 11. It isn't difficult. 12. Your name is Olga.

Exercise V. Complete the following sentences making them disjunctive questions. (The speaker expects the listener to agree with him.)

Model: This is ˎyours, | ˎisn't it? ||

1. She'll wait. 2. He lives in Aberdeen. 3. She is beautiful. 4. He is tall for his age. 5. You finished school two years ago. 6. Jack has no sense of humour. 7. Now it's your turn. 8. It was useful. 9. You don't mind. 10. You're surely not frightened. 11. You can't speak German yet. 12. The text is easy.

Exercise VI. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practice and memorize it.

— It's a nice day, isn't it?

— Yes, it is.

— You are on holiday, aren't you?

— Yes, I am.

— It's a long one, isn't it?

— Yes, it is.

— You don't talk very much, do you?

— No, I don't. You ask a lot of questions, don't you?

— Yes, I do.


Model: 'Would you like ˏtea | or ˎcoffee? ||

Альтернативные вопросы обычно имеют восходящий тон в первой интонационной группе и нисходящий — во второй. Например:

'Has she a ˏbrother | or a ˎsister? ||

Exercise I. Ask your fellow-student the following alternative questions.

Model: 'Is he a ˏdoctor | or a ˎteacher? ||

1. Is your name Peter or Nick? 2. Are you twenty or twenty-one? 3. Do you study English or French? 4. Are you a student or a teacher? 5. Are you a first or a second-year student? 6. Do you live at home or in the hostel? 7. Do you take exam in English in the fourth or in the third course? 8. Do you read the Times or the Moscow News? 9. Are there 15 or 14 faculties in our University? 10. Have you got a small or a large family? 11. Have you a sister or a brother? 12. Is your favourite subject history or pedagogics?

Exercise II. Make up alternative questions using the following sentences.

Model: She 'lives in ˎMoscow. She 'lives in ˎKiev.

'Does she 'live in ˏMoscow | or in ˎKiev? ||

1. This text is difficult. This text is easy. 2. She studies German. She studies English. 3. They go to the Crimea every year. They go to the Caucasus every year. 4. Your family is big. Your family is small. 5. There are five members in Ann's family. There are six members in Ann's family. 6. You study at the Institute. You study at the University. 7. She has passed her exam in English. She has passed her exam in history. 8. It takes Helen an hour to get to the Institute. It takes Helen half an hour to get to the Institute. 9. Peter is a hard-working student. Peter is a lazy-bones. 10. There is much milk at home. There is little milk at home. 11. There are many students in the room. There are few students in the room. 12. There is much snow in Moscow in winter. There is little snow in Moscow in winter.

Exercise III. Complete the following questions using the words in brackets.

Model: 'Do you 'study at the 'Russian ˏfaculty? (English faculty)-

'Do you 'study at the ˏRussian | or at the ˎEnglish ֽfaculty?

1. Does the University course last four years? (five years) 2. Is this time-table new? (old) 3. Do you do your homework at home (at the University) 4. Do you have many mistakes in your test? (few mistakes) 5. Is your Institute named after M. Lomonosov? (University) 6. Was your University awarded two orders? (three orders) 7. Does your University train students of day department? (evening department) 8. Have you got a seminar in history today? (in pedagogics) 9. Have you got two lectures today? (two seminars) 10. Is she better today? (worse) 11. Does she study well? (he) 12. Is Ann a lazybones? (Helen) 13. Have you read about the system of education in Greece? (have heard) 14. Can you speak Chinese? (write)

Exercise IV. Ask to repeat the following statements using alternative questions.

Model: This 'text is ˎdifficult | but 'not ˎeasy.

- ˏSorry, | 'is this 'text ˏdifficult | or ˎeasy?

1. Aberdeen University is old but not new. 2. She studies German but not English. 3. She has sisters but not brothers. 4. He has got a seminar in history but not in pedagogics. 5. She is sure to fail in physics but not in Russian. 6. She has got many mistakes in her reading but not few. 7. There is much work to do but not little. 8. There are 1$ faculties at our University but not 14. 9. The history of our University dates back to 1872 but not to 1870. 10. Today according to the time-table we have two seminars but not two lectures. 11. She knows the system of education in ancient Rome but not in ancient Greece. 12. He likes football but not hockey.

Exercise V. Listen to short dialogues. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them.

1. — Does Peter play indoor or outdoor games?

— Outdoor games, I think.

— Does he prefer football or hockey?

— Neither. He is fond of lawn tennis and motor-cycling.

— Is it easy or difficult to be in the sports club?

— It is not very difficult, especially if you are a good sportsman.

2. — Do you often travel?

— Yes, I like travelling.

— Do you travel for pleasure or on business?

— Both.

— Do you like to travel by air or by train?

— By air. It combines comfort and speed.

Exercise VI. Make up short dialogues with alternative questions and reproduce them.

Exercise VII. Play the game "Where is it" using the alternative questions. Guess the city (country, river, ocean, mountain, etc.). The list of questions:

Is it in Asia or in Europe?

Is it in a big or a small town?

Is it near the mountains or near the sea?

Is it in the north or in the south? etc.

There must be no more than 10 questions.

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