Учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка "english sounds and intonation" для студентов I и II курсов


UNIT 10. ИНТОНАЦИЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ. INTONATION OF SPECIAL QUESTIONS



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UNIT 10. ИНТОНАЦИЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ. INTONATION OF SPECIAL QUESTIONS.


Models: 'What's her ˎname?

'What's her ˋname?

Специальные вопросы обычно произносятся нисходящим тоном. Например:



'What's the ˎtime? Who's ˋthat?

Категоричные, серьезные, формальные вопросы имеют низкий нисходящий тон, заинтересованные, живые вопросы имеют высокий нисходящий тон. Например:



'How ˎmuch is it? Where ˋelse have you ˎbeen?

Exercise I. Read the following questions. Observe the intonation of special questions.

1. When d'you get up? 2. Why did you do such a stupid thing? 3. How long do you intend being away? 4. When can you do it? 5. Where does he come from? 6. Which subject do you prefer? 7. What's your name? 8. How many cousins have you got? 9. Whose pen is this? 10. What are you studying this year? 11. What's your job? 12. What are you? 13. Where did you go to school? 14. When will it be finished? 15. What's the time, please? 16. How did you spend the morning? 17. How can I keep the children busy? 18. How many of his books have you read? 19. What's the next move?



Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the replies.

ꞌJust ˌtell him. - ˌWhat?

I `saw a `friend of your toˌday. - ˌWho?

`Borrow `someone’s ˌdictionary. - ˌWhose?

`Pass me that ˌbox, Peter. - ˌWhich ˌbox?

Alec `won’t ˌhelp. - And ˌwhy ˌwon’t he?

`Can you `lend we some ˌmoney? - `What do you ˌwant for it?

I a`rrived on `Tuesday ˌmorning. - At e`xactly `what ˌtime?

I’ve missed the `last `bus. - How `are you `going to `get ˌhome?

`Will you ˌhelp? - `How could I `possibly reˌfuse?

It’s the `absolute ˌtruth. - But `who is `going to beˌlieve such a fanˌtastic ˌstory?

`Hallo, ˌDennis. - How `are you?

The `car won’t ˌstart. - What’s `wrong with it?

I said `no such ˌthing. - What `did you say then?

I know `all aˌbout it. - But how `can `you ˌknow?

Exercise III. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it.

— What's your name?

— My name's Betty.

— Where d'you come from?

— I'm from Aberdeen.

— Which school d'you go to?

— I go to a local comprehensive school.

— When d'you start school?

— At the age ot five.

— What kind of school can you go after primary school?

— We can go to a comprehensive school, a secondary modern school, a grammar school or a private school.

— What kind of school is the most popular one?

— I think a comprehensive school.

Exercise IV. Ask your fellow-student the following special questions:

1. Where d'you study? 2. What faculty do you study at? 3 How long does it take you to get to the University? 4 Which transport d'you prefer to use? 5. Where d'you catch a bus? 6. When d'you come to the University? 7. Who is always late for the classes? Why?

8. What's the date today? 9. What's the day today? 10. What's the time, please?

Exercise V. Listen to the jokes. Mark the stresses and tunes. Dramatize them.

When Did Socrates live?

The teacher asked: "When did Socrates live?" After a silence had become painful, she ordered: "Open your history book. What does it say there?"

Pupil: "Socrates, 469 B.C."

Teacher: "Why didn't you know when Socrates lived?"

Pupil: "Well, I thought 469 B.C. was his telephone number."

He Has One Rabbit at Home

Teacher: "Who can tell me how much five and one make?" No answer.

Teacher: "Suppose I give you five rabbits and then another rabbit. How many rabbits would you have?" Pupil: "Seven."

Teacher: "Seven? How do you make that out?" Pupil: "I have one rabbit at home already."



Exercise VI. Read the following riddles to your fellow-students.

1. What word of three syllables contains twenty-six letters?

2. Which is the strongest day of the week?

3. Which month of the year is the shortest?

4. What is that was tomorrow and will be yesterday?

5. What musical instrument will you not believe?

6. Whose face needs no washing?

7. When is a mouth not mouth?

8. What can you see with your eyes shut?

9. When is it dangerous to have an arm?

10. What star is not seen in the sky?

Answers to the riddles:

1. ABC — Alphabet.

2. Sunday (because the rest are week-days), a pun: week/weak.

3. May


4. Today

5. A lyre; a pun: lyre — liar.

6. The face of the clock

7. When a box of sweets make it water.

8. A dream

9. When it is a fire-arm. 10. A film star.



Exercise VII. Read the, dialogue and act it out.

What Time Does the Plane Leave?

Rоbert: What's the time?

Emily: Ten past two, dear.

Robert: When does the plane leave?

Emily: Not until a quarter to four.

Robert: Why did we get here so early?

Emily: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.

Robert: Where's my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?

Emily: It's there, dear, between your feet.

Robert: Emily! Where are you going?

Emily: I'm going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the loudspeaker.

Robert: Which gentleman?

Emily: That man over there with all the packages.

Robert: Who is he?

Emily: I don't know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement... Yes, I was afraid so. The plane's delayed. It won't be leaving till five.

Robert: How did he manage to hear it if we didn't?

Emily: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to me.

Robert: What do you mean, I was talking too much?

Emily: Oh dear. Never mind.

Robert: What time is it now, Emily?


UNIT 11. ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВОСКЛИЦАНИЙ И МЕЖДОМЕТИЙ. INTONATION OF EXCLAMATIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.


Model: ˋNonsense. ˎGood.

Восклицания и междометия, как правило, произносятся с нисходящим тоном: с низким нисходящим тоном, если говорящий хочет, чтобы они звучали весомо, эмфатически, и с высоким нисходящим тоном, если они произнесены менее весомо, более эмфатически и заинтересованнее. Например:



ˎSplendid. ˋSplendid.

Exercise I. Listen to the sentences and repeat them.

1. ̖ Pity. ̖ Splendid. ̖ Oh. ̖ Right. . ̖ Good. . ̖ Fine. . ̖ Silly boy.

2. 'Well . ̖ done. 'Not . ̖ him. "Nice . ̖ work. 'What . ̖ fun. 'Too . ̖ bad. 'Bad . ̖ luck.

3. 'Thanks . ̖ awfully. 'Thank you 'very . ̖ much. 'Welcome . ̖ back. 'Many 'happy re. ̖ turns. 'How do you . ̖ do. 'Pleased to . ̖ meet you.

4. 'How . ̖ sweet of you. 'How re. ̖ diculous. 'How . ̖ wonderful. 'How . ̖ nice.

5. `How `awkward. `What a `shame. `Well `done. The `very i`dea of it. `Nonsense. `Oh. `How `lovely. `There’s a ˌclever ˌboy. `That’s a ˌgood ˌgirl. How `very ˌnoble of you. `What `wonderful `news. ˌNot in the `least. How ˌabsolutely `marvelous.



Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the replies.

He `says it was `your fault. - `How riˌdiculous! `Stuff and ˌnonsense!

I’ve `got the ˌjob. - `Well ˌdone! `Nice ˌwork! `Good for ˌyou!

Some `flowers ˌfor you. - `How ˌnice! `How ˌsweet of you! `What a `pleasant surˌprise!

He’s `won a `gold `medal. - `Fancy ˌthat! `How extraˌordinary!

`This is Miss `Smith. - `How do you ˌdo! `Pleased to ˌmeet you!

I’ll `make you a `present of it. - `Thanks ˌawfully. `Thank you `very ˌmuch.

`Here I `am at ˌlast. - `Welcome ˌback!

It’s my `birthday. - `Very `many `happy re`turns of the ˌday!

`Thank you `so much. - `Not at ˌall. `Thank ˌyou.

I’ve `lost my `ball. - ˌPity. ˌSilly ˌgirl.

He’ll b with you on ˌFriday. - ˌMarvelous! ˌSplendid! ˌGood!

He’s `just aˌrrived. - ˌOh! ˌRight! ˌGood. ˌFine!

He `didn’t say a `word. - How `very un`usual!

`What was the `show like? - `Very `good in`deed!

He’s `broken a ˌleg. - `How ˌawful! ˌPity!



Exercise III. Listen to the dialogues and reproduce them.

1. — I really must be going now.

— Pity! Can't you stay a little longer?

— Thanks awfully. But I'm late already.

— Oh, dear! What a shame!

— We'll meet on Friday.

— Fine. Welcome back!

2. — Hallo, Ann. Pleased to meet you! My best congratulations! They say you've passed your exams successfully.

— Thank you very much. I was lucky, but Lily has got a bad mark in history.

— Fancy that! Poor thing! I'll help her with the history.

— How sweet of you!

Exercise IV. Complete the dialogues using the following phrases.

1. 2.


— It's my birthday today. — Why is Helen so gloomy?

— Some flowers for you. — Don't you know? She failed in English yesterday.

— Meet my friend Nina. — Don't pity her. It serves her right.

— I can help her. I am good at English.



Exercise V. Read the dialogue and act it out.

I've Won a Prize!

Michael: Jennifer! Guess what! I've won a prize! , Jennifer: A prize? What sort of prize?

Miсhae1: A super prize. Dinner for two at Maxime's!

Jennifer: You are clever! What was the prize for? I mean, what did you do to win a dinner for two at Maxime's?

Michael: Well, you're not to laugh — I went in for a competition at the Adult Education Centre — a cooking contest.

Jennifer: You won a prize in a cooking contest! I've got to laugh. Michael, you can't even boil an egg!

Michael: I can boil an egg. I can scramble one, too. Most deliciously. Of course, I'm not a Cordon Bleu cook, like you.

Jennifer: Well, why haven't I ever won a cooking competition?

Michael: Probably because you never go in for competitions. I'm glad you didn't go in for this one. You might have won, and then you would have had to invite me to dinner at Maxime's!

UNIT 12. ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПЕРЕЧИСЛЕНИЙ. INTONATION OF ENUMERATION.


Model: He can 'speak ˏEnglish, | ˏFrench, | ˏGerman | and ˎRussian. ||

В предложениях, содержащих перечисление, обычно каждая незаконченная смысловая группа произносится восходящим тоном. Например:



There are 'six ˎmembers in my ˌfamily: | my ˏmother, | my ˏfather, | my 'elder ˏsister, | my 'two ˏbrothers | and ˎI. ||

Exercise I. Read the following sentences. Observe the intonation of enumeration.

1. We saw a good deal during those two weeks. We went to Venice, Florence, Rome and Naples. 2. Which writers do you have to study for your examinations? — Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Pope and Swift. 3. My husband is very fond of outdoor games. He plays tennis, golf, cricket and polo. 4. What lessons did you have today? — We had Latin, Maths, French and history. 5. You could easily become an interpreter. You know English, French, German, Spanish and Russian.



Exercise II. Listen to the sentences and read them.

1. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets, monuments. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets, monuments, and colourful ceremonies.

2. Certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals, holidays certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals, holidays and celebrations certain traditions are observed in England.

Exercise III. Read the sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes.

1. Britain was the originator of many sports such as football, rugby, golf, cricket, hockey and lawn tennis. 2. Ushinsky made trips to Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy and Belgium to observe school organization there. He travelled, lectured, held conferences and interviews. 3. Russia has large reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, copper, lead and other minerals. 4. Our University trains teachers in many subjects: physics, mathematics, history, the Russian language and literature, geography, biology, drawing, music and so on. 5. The curriculum of our faculty consists of different subjects: psychology, history of education, pedagogics, foreign languages, history of Russia and physical training. 6. The most outstanding world educators are: Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Comenius, Ushinsky, Makarenko. 7. In ancient Greece and Rome children learned writing, reading, arithmetic, music and poetry. 8. The ladies usually talk about the weather, the latest fashions and their friends. The men discuss politics, business, the latest news and football. 9. A woman is an angel at ten, a saint at fifteen, a devil at forty and a witch at four score.



Exercise IV. Read the story and render it.

My friend Tom is very capable and he can do some very difficult things. But the easier the thing, the less capable he feels to do it. For instance, he can drive a car, sail a boat, drive a tractor but be cannot ride a bicycle. Isn't that a funny thing?

Tom is a good sportsman. He can play basket-ball, volley-ball, football and tennis. He can also run, skate, and ski very well. But he cannot swim. Isn't it strange?

He learns languages easily too. He can speak English, German, Italian, and French. He can speak, write, and read these languages. He can read and write Chinese but he cannot speak it. He cannot speak a word. How ridiculous!



Exercise V. Read the text, mark the stresses and tunes. Prepare it for test reading.

There are twenty-two universities in Great Britain: sixteen in England, four in Scotland, one in Wales and one in Northern Ireland.

A University consists of a number of faculties: medicine, arts, philosophy, law, music, natural science, economics, engineering, agriculture, commerce and education. After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, later to the degrees of Master and Doctor.

The leading universities in England are: Oxford, Cambridge and London. English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, history, tradition, internal government, methods of instruction, ways of student life, size, etc. Each university has its own problems, each looks at them in its own way.




UNIT 16. ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБРАЩЕНИЯ. INTONATION OF DIRECT ADDRESS.


Models: ˎMary, | 'come ˎhere. ˎMaˏry, | 'come ˎhere.

'Come ˎhere, Mary. ||

'Good 'afterˎnoon, Mary, 'how ˎare you? ||

В начале предложения обращение обычно ударно. В официально-деловой речи обращение выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится нисходящим тоном. Если говорящий хочет привлечь внимание слушателя, обращение произносится нисходяще-восходящим тоном. Например:



ˎPeter, | 'sit ˎdown. ||

ˎMoˏther, | 'can I have an 'ice-ˏcream? ||

В середине или в конце предложения обращение обычно неударно или полуударно и продолжает мелодию предшествующего ударного слога. Например:



ˋLook, ˌMummy, | I'm 'right on the ˋtop. ||

ˋMany ˏthanks, Fred. ||

Иногда, если ядерный слог произносится с нисходящим тоном, обращение в конце предложения может произноситься с восходящим тоном. Например:



'What's ˋup, ˏTom? ||

Exercise I. Listen to the following sentences. Explain the intonation of direct address. Read the sentences.

1. Good morning, Jack. Hallo, David. Good afternoon, Mr. Davis. Hallo, Dad. Good morning, Janet.

2. Mary, this is my old friend, John Hicks. John, look over there. Peter, hurry up. Porter, will you see to my luggage, please.

3. Children, stand up. Mary, look at the map. Tom, who is on duty? Ann, come to the blackboard.

4. What about you, Mr. Thompson? That's all right, darling. Good morning, Mrs. Wood. Come to Daddy, Johnny. Which will you take, Henry? Your umbrella, Pat. What do you think of this model, madam? Excuse me, sir. What do you mean, George? Did you call, dear?

Exercise II. Read and reproduce the following conversational situations.

I’m `most ˌgrateful ˌto you, Mr. White. - Don’t `mention it, ˌdear ˌchap.

What about `Butler’s offer? – Re`fuse it, you ˌsilly ˌboy.

I `won’t have `this `man in my ˌhouse, George. - Now, be `reasonable, dear.

`Hello,| ˌTom. –`Oh, `there you are George.

`John will be `home at `7, Mrs. Reed. –`Thank you for `letting me ˌknow, Mike.

`What `happened, Tom? –`Take it ˌeasy, Mum.

I’m `off to ˌbed, Mummy. –`Good- ˌnight, dear.



ˌGood-ˌbye, Peter. –`So ˌlong, old chap.

`Call again toˌmorrow, Ann. –`Very ˌgood, madam.



ˌPeter,| `may I `take your ˌbook? –By `all `means, John.

`Hello,| Davy. –`Good `after`noon, Mr. White.

`John,| `look over ˌthere. –ˌWaving, dear.

There’s a `man `waving.



ˌMary,| `this is my old ˌfriend, John `Hicks. –`How do you `do, Mr ˌHicks?

`Oh, ˌAnn,| `may I intro`duce Mr. ˌHarvey? –`Glad to `meet you, Mr. Harvey.



ˌJohn,| `haven’t you `finished that ˌbook yet? –I’ve `only `just beˌgun it. Dad.

Exercise III. Listen to this dialogue. Prepare it for test reading. Explain the intonation of direct address.

Afternoon Tea

— Good afternoon, Mrs. White, how are you?

— Very well indeed, thank you, and how are you?

— Quite well, thank you. Won't you sit down. Excuse me, please. I think that's my niece at the door.

— Hello, Betty dear! I'm so glad to see you. You do look well. I don't think you've met each other before. Let me introduce you. This is my niece, Miss Smith. Mr. White, Mrs. White.

— How do you do?

— How do you do?

— And now let's have some tea. How do you like your tea, Mrs. White, strong or weak?

— Not too strong, please and one lump of sugar. I like my tea rather sweet, but my husband prefers his without sugar.

— Well, what's the news, Mr. White? How's business?

— Pretty good, thank you. And how are things with you?

— Well, not too good, I'm afraid, and going from bad to worse. In fact, it's the worst year we've had for a long time.

— I'm sorry to hear that. I hope things will soon improve.

— Yes. Let's hope for the best.



Exercise IV. Listen to these jokes. Mark the stresses and tunes. Dramatize the jokes.

1. — Johnny, here's a good piece of bread and butter.

— Thank you, aunty.

— That's good, Johnny. I like to hear little boys say "thank you", dear.

— Oh, aunty, if you want to hear me say it again, then put some jam on that piece of bread.

2. — Grandpa, would you like me to give you a new pipe for your birthday?

— That's very nice of you, Mary, but I've got a pipe.

— Don't think you have. Grandpa. I've just broken it.

3. — Darling, will you many me?

— No, dear, but I will always admire your good taste.

4. — I love you, I love you, darling.

— You must see mama first, Joe.

— I've seen her several times, dear, but I love you just the same.


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