Учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка "english sounds and intonation" для студентов I и II курсов


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Models: After ˏdinner, | I 'saw her 'go into the ˎreading-room. ||

I 'saw her 'go into the ˎreading-room after ˌdinner. ||

In 'front of the ˏhouse | there is a 'large ˎgarden. ||

Обстоятельственные группы в начале предложений обычно выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся низким восходящим тоном. Например:

In 'front of the ˏhouse | we have a 'small ˎlake. ||

Обстоятельственные группы в конце предложений, как правило, подуударны или безударны. Например:

It's 'getting ˎcold ˌout of ˌdoors. ||

Exercise I. Read the sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the adverbials.

1. During the latest years our country has changed beyond recognition. 2, In 1918 the capital of the country was moved to Moscow. 3. Under tsar Fyodor Moscow was already considered to be one of the largest cities in Europe. 4. In front of you is an ancient monument of Red Square — Pokrovsky Cathedral. 5. On the left you can see the Tower of London. 6. Not far from Trafalgar Square there is a quiet little street. 7. On Tuesday we have two seminars. 8. On the 12th of May I leave for London.

Exercise II. Read the sentences according to the given model.

Model: We have 'got a 'new ˎlibrary at our ˌInstitute.

We are 'going ˎout toˌnight.

1. There are more than 80 parks in London. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. Sunday is a very quiet day in London. 4. They often watch TV after supper in the evening. 5. People like to go to the country for skiing in winter. 6. Thanksgiving Day was marked irregularly after 1623. 7. I fell asleep after a few minutes. 8. There are many good laboratories at our Institute. 9. We see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas in the hall. 10. You can see a large window on the left.

Exercise III. Listen to the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes.

1. The Arctic Ocean and its seas wash the frontiers of Russia in the north. 2. During the Second World War the British Museum was badly damaged. 3. You can find a complete reconstruction of Sherlock Holmes' living-room on the upper floor. 4. The streets are lit by electricity at night. 5. In spring Nature awakens from her long winter sleep. 6. At two o'clock lessons start again. 7. At night millions of stars shine in the darkness. 8. We have a holiday on the first of May. 9. In the picture we can see a sitting-room. 10. We have thirty days in November.


Model: As you ˏknow | she is a ˎteacher. ||

She is a ˎteacher you know. ||

The ˎEnglish, | as you ˏknow, | are a 'matter-of-'fact ˎpeople. ||

Интонация вводных слов в начале предложения зависит от говорящего. Если говорящий не придает значение вводным словам, они, как правило, произносятся быстро, часто неударны и не образуют отдельную синтагму. Например:

Well I ˎdo. || 'Well, I ˎdo. ||

Если говорящий придает большое значение вводным словам, они образуют отдельную синтагму и произносятся либо нисходящим, либо восходящим или нисходяще-восходящим тоном. Например:

ˎGenerally | about 'half 'past ˎseven. ||

ˏGenerally | about 'half 'past ˎseven. ||

ˎGeneˏrally | about 'half 'past ˎseven. ||

Вводная смысловая группа в конце предложения обычно безударна или полуударна и продолжает мелодию предшествующей смысловой группы. Например:

I ˎcan't, you know. ||

Вводная смысловая группа в середине предложения может произноситься как с восходящей, так и с нисходящей интонацией. Например:

The ˎEnglish, | as you ˏknow, | are a 'matter-of-'fact ˎpeople. ||

ˎEverybody, | it's ˎtrue, | 'wouldn't apˎprove of it. ||
Exercise I. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the replies.

Can you `see him, ˌnow? –Of ˌcourse I ˌcan||. You ˌknow, | I ˌcan’t.||

`Where did you `go to `school? –Well,| I was at a ˌnumber of schools.||

`How many ˌpencils do you ˌwant? –`Buy me `half a ˌdozen, ˌplease.

`When can you ˌcome? –I `think| I shall be `free on ˌSunday.||

`Would you `like to `go to the ˌopera? –In`deed,| I ˌwould.|| Of `course,| I ˌwould.||

`How about `asking `Jack and `Marion? –`No `use I’m aˌfraid.

`When will the `school be `ready? –`Probably not for `ages.

Can I `read the `novel after ˌyou? –`Pity you `didn’t `ask me `earlier.

`Can you ˌvisit me? –By the `way| `where do you `live?

`Thank you `very `much. –`Please, `don’t ˌmention it.

`Where’s `Billy? –In ˌbed, I hope.

`Do you `like ˌtennis? –ˌPersonally,| I’m `not `fond of ˌtennis.||

Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Mark the stresses and tunes in the replies.

Where do you go? — I think, we prefer the Crimea.

What about indoor games? — Well, there's chess, billiards, cards, table tennis. By the way, do you play tennis?

And how are things with you? — Not too good, I'm afraid.

You're thirty-five, aren't you? — As a matter of fact I'm nearly forty.

Are you fond of music? — Of course I am.

Is it possible to see anything — Well, yes, but not half enough.

of Moscow in one or two days?

Why not go to the Tretyakov — I think I will.


The Tretyakov Gallery is — I suppose it is.

much too big to be seen

in an hour or so.

What about a trip on the — That's not a bad idea you know.

Moskva river? I think that's a good idea.

Exercise III. Listen to the dialogue. Prepare it for test reading.

Morning and Evening

— What time do you get up as a rule?

— Generally about half past seven.

— Why so early?

— Because I usually catch an early train up to town.

— When do you get to the office?

— Normally about nine o'clock.

— Do you stay in town all day?

— Sometimes 1 do and sometimes I don't.

— What do you usually do in the evening?

— We generally stay at home. Once or twice a week we go to a theatre or to the picture. We went to the pictures last night and saw a very interesting film. Occasionally we go to a dance.

— Do you like dancing?

— Yes, very much. Do you dance?

— I used to when I was younger but not very often now. I'm getting too old.

— Too old? Nonsense! You don't look more then 50.

— As a matter of fact I'm nearly sixty.

— Really? You certainly don't look it.

— I'm glad to hear it. Are you doing anything special tonight? If not, what about coming with me to my club? You'd get to know quite a lot of interesting people there.

— I should love to but today happens to be our wedding anniversary and we're going out tonight to celebrate.

— Well, my heartiest congratulations!

— Thank you very much. I could manage to come along tomorrow night if that would suit you.

— Yes. Excellent. Let's make it round about eight o'clock.

— Very well. Thanks.

Exercise IV. Make up a short dialogue. Use:

Well; of course; as a matter of fact; I think; I suppose; for my own part; by the way; generally.


Приложение, ограничивающее значение существительного, тесно связано с ним и не выделяется в отдельную синтагму. Например:

Приложение, выступающее в качестве дополнительной информации в форме ремарки, обычно выделяется в отдельную синтагму, ударно и произносится тем же тоном, что и определяемое слово, но на более низком уровне. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following sentences. Pay attention to the intonation of apposition.

1. Mark Twain, the famous American writer was travelling in France. 2. The part of Great Britain, lying south of the Scottish border, (Cheviot Hills), and east of Wales is England. 3. All my family (except for me) is involved in farming. 4. Robert Burns, Scotland's bard and the world's poet was born in 1759. 5. My brother-in-law, Peter Smith, is a teacher. 6. I'm speaking of Caracus, the capital of Venezuella. 7. That's my son, the local doctor. 8. Is that your host, the famous steel magnet? 9. That's William the Conqueror. 10. I'm from Dayton, Ohio. 11. Another Englishman John Belias, the author or Little Guide Book of Moscow wrote: "Who would not wish to visit the old capital — Moscow, with its Kremlin and golden domes?" 12. Before bills (proposed laws) can become acts (laws) they must be approved by both Houses of Parliament.

Exercise II. Listen to the sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them.

1. Buckingham Palace, one of the homes of the king and queen, is not far from the Hall. 2. Jocelyn, my other sister, is seventeen. 3. If the Kremlin is the symbol of Russia then the Saviour's Tower (Spasskaya Bashnya) is the symbol of the Kremlin. 4. The House of Lords cannot originate, amend or reject money bills (bills concerned with imposing taxes and authorising the spending of public money). 5. Another Tower, the Clock Tower, is famous for the clock named "Big Ben". 6. It was designed by Christopher Wren, famous English architect. 7. Geoffrey Chaucer, the famous English poet of the 14th century, was the first to be buried in the Poet's Corner. 8. Here we can see one of the most colourful and stirring of all London ceremonies, the Changing of the Guards. 9. The name of one of London's lost rivers is commemorated in Fleet Street, the former centre of the British newspaper industry.

Exercise III. Read the text. Find the apposition. Mark the stresses and tunes. Render the text.

The Tower of London, one of the most fascinating historical places, is situated on the North bank of the Thames. It dates back from Roman times and was strengthened by William the Conqueror. It was at times a fortress, palace and prison. Many great people were beheaded in the Tower. Among them were Sir Thomas More, the author of the famous "Utopia", Sir Walter Raleigh, explorer and historian and others. As English people are very fond of traditions the Tower guards (Beefeaters) wear the same uniform as the one they wore many centuries ago.


В сложносочиненных повествовательных предложениях первая и вторая части их обычно произносятся с низким нисходящим тоном. Например:

Однако, если существует причинно-следственная связь, первая часть произносится с восходящей интонацией. Например:

Exercise I. Mark the stresses and tunes and read the following sentences.

1. Sunday is a holiday in Christian countries and Friday is a holiday in Muslim countries.

2. There are many holidays in Russia but the most favourite is New Year's Day.

3. It was raining hard and we decided to stay at home.

4. She was a beauty and he decided to get acquainted with her.

5. His clothes were dirty and he was afraid to ask where Mr. Rank's house was.

6. His father and mother were dead, his cousin was his only close relative.

7. He had brothers and sisters in London but he never saw them.

8. She felt afraid and excited, Halloween was the night of the ghosts.

9. His child was kidnapped and he had to pay 10.000 dollars as a ransom.

10. He loved Ann but she didn't agree to marry him.

Exercise II. Complete the following sentences, make them compound.

1. Katherine of Aragon didn't give Henry the son and he...

2. Edward became King of England but he...

3. Katherine was eighteen and John...

4. She met him secretly at night but her husband...

5. Morning came at last and I...

6. They went by train and it...

7. They found Lucy's body in the coffin but she...

8. Her parents weren't interested with her any more and she...

9. Paul had other girl friends and sometimes Helen...

10. He didn't take her on the tour and she...

11. The students get tired towards the end of the term and they really...

12. In some English schools classes finish in early July but most schools finish in mid to late July.

Exercise III. Intone the text and read it.

One of the greatest Italian painters Michelangelo Merisi was born in 1573 and he was called Caravaggio after his native town in Lombardy. Caravaggio lived on the fringe of respectable society and his short life was marked by violence and disaster. He was in constant trouble with authority and he had to flee Rome in 1606 after the murder of a man. He was pardoned but soon he died of Malaria at the age of 37. He painted many famous pictures but his favourite one was "The Creation of Adam". Caravaggio's paintings were condemned by many artists and critics in Italy but two of the greatest painters in the 17th century Rembrandt and Velasquez considered themselves to be his followers.

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