Учебное пособие по практической фонетике английского языка "english sounds and intonation" для студентов I и II курсов


Lesson 15. Word junctures in connected speech. Speech junctures of the type: consonant plus vowel (C+V)



страница22/22
Дата01.08.2018
Размер2,99 Mb.
ТипУчебное пособие
1   ...   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22

Lesson 15.

Word junctures in connected speech. Speech junctures of the type: consonant plus vowel (C+V)

Exercise 1. Link [p, b ,t, d, k, g] to a following vowel smoothly.

My neck͜ aches.

Wrap̮ it͜ in a scarf.

Drink͜ a cup͜ of tea.

Take͜ an aspirin,

Don’t think͜ about it.

Rub͜ it.


I’ve got͜ a big͜ emerald ring.

Put͜ it͜ on.

Keep͜ it safe.

Lock͜ it up.

Take͜ it to the bank.

Put͜ it͜ in a big͜ envelope, and hide͜ it under the bed.

I’ve got͜ a week͜ off. What shall I do?

Make͜ a dress.

Knit͜ a jumper.

Read͜ a book.

Paint͜ a picture.

Sit͜ and relax.

What would͜ Anne like for Christmas?

a big͜ umbrella

a bag͜ and some 'gloves

a book͜ on music

a red͜ and white scarf

Exercise 2. Link [f, v, ʃ, ʧ, ʤ, s, z, θ] to a following vowel. Listen, and practise this conversation.

A: What do you want to do when you leave School?

B: I ‘want to move͜ into a flat with some friends.

A: It’s less͜ expensive to live͜ at home.

В: I’m going to give͜ a party.

A: Don’t damage͜ anything!

В: I’d like to buy myself͜ a sports car.

A: Don’t crash͜ into anything!

B: I want to catch͜ a plane to South America.

A: Arrange͜ a cheap flight!

B: What do you 'want to do, when you leave school?

A: I want to get a job in a large͜ organisation, and save͜ all my money.

Exercise 3 a. Link [r] to a following vowel. Listen to this conversation in a hospital waiting room.

A: We’ve been waiting for͜ an hour and a half.

B: Say your͜ aunt is very ill. A doctor͜ ought to see her at once.

A: There isn’t a doctor͜ available. They’re͜ all busy.

B: Ask the receptionist to hurry͜ up.

A: I’ve asked her͜ over͜ and over͜ again. The more͜ I ask, the longer͜ I wait.

Exercise 3 b. Now practise the conversation. Make sure to link [r] to a following vowel.

Unit 16.

Word junctures in connected speech. Junctures of the type: vowel plus vowel (V+V)

Exercise . Listen and repeat, linking the vowels [i, ɔ, ei] to the following vowel in the next word.



Make sure you pronounce the word junctures smoothly. Notice the appearance of a transitional weak sound ([j] or [w]) at the juncture which helps to make the linking smooth.

very interesting

the story is very interesting

The end of the story is very interesting

a lovely ice cream

enjoy a lovely ice cream

I always enjoy a lovely ice cream

a day or two

stay at home for a day or two

I ought to stay at home for a day or two

Exercise . Listen and repeat these sentences which were all overheard at a party. Link vowels [u:, əu, ei, ai] to a following vowel.

I couldn’t do anything about it.

Let’s go into the next room.

Do you know everyone here?

I’ve moved to a hew office - next to Oxford Circus station.

I knew I would be late.

Are you in the same place?

You always say that.

It was so exciting.

I don’t know all the students, but I know all the teachers.


How old is she?

There was snow and ice everywhere

We travelled trough Africa.

I don’t know anything about him.


Exercise . Listen to this conversation which contains all types of junctures practised in this laboratory work, followed by a vowel.

Recognise and reproduce the links between words. Look for an example of each type of link and mark the link.

A: Anne’s just phoned. She and Diana are both on their way. Is dinner nearly ready? Can I help with anything?

B: Yes. Can you get out two eggs from the fridge?

A: Which eggs? The large ones or the small ones?

B: The large eggs. Small eggs are no good.

A: OK. Anything else?

B: Yes. Squeeze another orange, and put the fresh orange juice in a jug, please.

A: Right. What next?

B: There's a pie in the oven. Take it out, and slide it under the grill. Then finish laying the table for me. Each person needs a knife and fork, and a cup and saucer. And then, could you scrub all these potatoes.

A: Come on, Ann and Diana!

Exercise . Now practise the conversation, linking the words smoothly.
РАЗДЕЛ III. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ МАТЕРИАЛ
Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.

[i:]

a) Pete; Pete eats; Pete eats meat; Pete eats lean meat; Steve and Pete eat lean meat; Steve and Pete eat lean meat and green beans; please, Steve and Pete, eat lean meat and green beans.

b) ease; with equal ease; Japanese with equal ease; Chinese and Japanese with equal ease; speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease; he speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.

[æ]

a) a rat; a fat rat; catching a fat rat; a cat catching a fat rat; a black cat catching a fat rat.

b) his hands; clapping his hands; a man clapping his hands; a fat man clapping his hands; a fat man clapping his hands is Pat's Dad.

c) a hat; a black hat; Pat's black hat; a cat is in Pat's black hat; a black cat is in Pat's black hat; Pat's black cat is in Pat's black hat.

d)Franz; friend Franz; Czech friend Franz; Jack's Czech friend Franz, Jack's Czech friend Franz and Pat; Jack's Czech friend Franz and French friend Pat; Jack's Czech friend Franz and Franz's French friend Pat.

[ɒ]

a) a dog; a hot dog; a big hot dog; a nice big hot dog.

b) a bottle; a water bottle; a hot water bottle; don't warm a hot water bottle.

c) horses; four horses; drawn by four horses; was drawn by four horses; the cart he bought was drawn by four horses.

d) the horse; the cart before the horse; always puts the cart before the horse; Gordon always puts the cart before the horse.

[ɜ:]

a) purpose; serve no purpose; the work will serve no purpose.

b) a girl; a circus girl; Pearl is a circus girl; Pearl is a circus girl who works; Pearl is a circus girl who works with horses.

c) birthday; first birthday; thirty-first birthday; pearls for her thirty-first birthday; a circlet of pearls for her thirty-first birthday; a fur and a circlet of pearls for her thirty-first birthday; an earl gave Pearl a fur and a circlet of pearls for her thirty-first birthday.



[ɑ:]

a) Charles; hard on Charles; rather hard on Charles; Father's rather hard on Charles.

b) supper; bun for supper; buttered bun for supper; crusty buttered bun for supper; a lovely crusty buttered bun for supper.

[ʊ]

a) book; cookery-book; look at the cookery-book; the cook looks at the cookery-book.

b) spoon; a wooden spoon; a good wooden spoon; a good blue wooden spoon; choose a good blue wooden spoon.

[ə]

a) a photograph; a photograph of her mother; a photograph of her mother and father; a photograph of her mother, father and brother; a photograph of her mother, father and younger brother.

b) America; about South America; a book about South America; a beautiful book about South America.

[ɛə]

a) share; fair share; their fair share; it's their fair share.

b) there; down there; Mary down there; there's Mary down there; I swear there's Mary down there; I dare swear there's Mary down there.

c) Can you hear? Can you hear clearly? Can you hear clearly from here?



[əʊ]

a) Rose; know Rose; you know Rose; suppose you know Rose; don't suppose you know Rose; I don't suppose you know Rose.

b) ground; mouse on the ground; a brown mouse on the ground; found a brown mouse on the ground; this owl has found a brown mouse on the ground.

[eɪ]

a) days; eight days; eighty-eight days; takes eighty-eight days; it takes eighty-eight days; they say it takes eighty-eight days.

b) station; a railway station; waiting at a railway station; a train waiting at a railway station; a train waiting at a railway station on a rainy day; a train waiting at a railway station on a grey rainy day.

[aɪ]

a) Mike; Mike and Myra; Mike and Myra take; Mike and Myra take enjoyment; Mike and Myra take enjoyment in spoiling; Mike and Myra take enjoyment in spoiling toys.

b) oil; point of oil; boiling point of oil; What's the boiling point of oil?

[p-b]

a) a passenger; a purposeful passenger; a prosperous purposeful passenger; a plump, prosperous, purposeful passenger; portrait of a plump, prosperous, purposeful passenger; portrait of a plump, prosperous, purposeful passenger with a pipe.

b) beer; brown beer; best brown beer; a bottle of best brown beer; bring a bottle of best brown beer; Bob, bring a bottle of best brown beer.

[]

a) eight; to eight; a quarter to eight; till a quarter to eight; arrive till a quarter to eight; won't arrive till a quarter to eight; the train won't arrive till a quarter to eight.



b) concert; to the concert; straight to the concert; taxi straight to the concert; take a taxi straight to the concert; you'd better take a taxi straight to the concert.

[]

a) August; school in August; a language school in August; to go to a language school in Au-gust; idea to go to a language school in August; great idea to go to a language school in August; it's a great idea to go to a language school in August.



b) awake; to keep me awake; coffee to keep me awake; cups of coffee to keep me awake; a couple of cups of coffee to keep me awake; I have a couple of cups of coffee to keep me awake.

[m-l]

a) Memphis; museum at Memphis; mammoth in the museum at Memphis; an immense mammoth in the museum at Memphis.

b) line; pen line; a fine pen line; again with a fine pen line; again and again with a fine pen line; his name again and again with a fine pen line; sign his name again and again with a fine pen line; Brown signs his name again and again with a fine pen line; Norman Brown signs his name again and again with a fine pen line.

[ŋ]

a) songs; spring songs; singing spring songs; birds singing spring songs; listening to birds singing spring songs; like listening to birds singing spring songs; nothing like listening to birds singing spring songs; there is nothing like listening to birds singing spring songs.

b) hungry; is hungry; Ben is .angry; Ben is angry when he is hungry.

vicar; a village vicar; versus a village vicar; devils versus a village vicar; evil devils versus a village vicar; seven evil devils versus a village vicar.

[]

a) improve; I'll improve; eventually I'll improve, over again eventually I'll improve; over and over again eventually I'll improve; if I say it over and over again eventually I'll improve.



b) wardrobe; woodwork of his wardrobe; worm in the woodwork of his wardrobe; woodworm in the woodwork of his wardrobe; worried about woodworm in the woodwork of his wardrobe; William is worried about woodworm in the woodwork of his wardrobe.

[]

a) smile; an irresistible smile; has an irresistible smile; Sally has an irresistible smile; Sam thinks Sally has an irresistible smile.



b) roses; over the roses; flying over the roses; bees are flying over the roses; the busy bees are flying over the roses.

[]

(a) dishes; wash dishes; don't wash dishes; wishes don't wash dishes.



(b) seawards; surer seawards; sail surer seawards; should sail surer seawards; sails should sail surer seawards; short sails should sail surer seawards.

[ʧ]

a) watch chain; Dutch cheese; catch Charles; catch a chill; such chips.

b) dispatches; matches and dispatches; catches, matches and dispatches; hatches, catches, matches and dispatches.

[ʤ]

a) junior; Jones junior; John Jones junior; John Jones junior is a gentleman; John Jones junior is a joyful gentleman; John Jones junior is a joyful gentleman who likes jokes; John Jones junior is a joyful gentleman who likes jokes and jam.

b) language; the German language; learning the German language; Jim learning the German language; Jack and Jim learning the German language; Just imagine Jack and Jim learning the German language.

[]

a) lake; a lovely lake; island in a lovely lake; a large island in a lovely lake; a hill on a large island in a lovely lake; a low hill on a large island in a lovely lake; lying on a low hill on a large is-land in a lovely lake; a pool lying on a low hill on a large island in a lovely lake; a small pool lying on a low hill on a large island in a lovely lake.



b) the track; across the track; a tree-trunk across the track; trapped by a tree-trunk across the track; trucks are trapped by a tree-trunk across the track; this train and its trucks are trapped by a tree-trunk across the track.

[ð]

a) that; than that; rather than that; anything rather than that; I'll do anything rather than that.

b) both, thanks to you both, a thousand thanks to you both.
[h]

a) a hammer; a heavy hammer; herself with a heavy hammer; hit herself with a heavy hammer; Hilda hit herself with a heavy hammer.

b) the horn; the horn of the hunter; the him of the hunter was heard; the horn of the hunter was heard on the hill.

РАЗДЕЛ IV. ТЕСТОВЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

Тест 1.

1. Ознакомьтесь со следующими предложениями. Сделайте к ним тонограммы.

Низкий нисходящий тон (Low Fall)

Kitty doesn’t know English.

What’s the time?

Высокий нисходящий тон (High Fall)

What’s the time?



Низкий восходящий тон (Low Rise)

Is he a student?

He is five.

Высокий восходящий тон (High Rise)

When did he come?

What did you say?

Нисходяще-восходящий тон (Fall Rise)

You promised it for Saturday.- Monday.



Восходяще-нисходящий тон (Rise Fall)

I knew nothing about it.



2. Проинтонируйте следующие предложения. Объясните свое решение.

1. My father is a farmer.

2. Have they any friends in London?

3. Is there a farm beyond the forest?

4. I live on a farm in the North of Scotland.

5. He plays tennis.

6. I met my old fiend.

7. What are you doing now?

8. I am glad to see you.

9. She is reading now.

10. There are many flowers in the vase.

11. Mary, come to the blackboard.



3. Напишите данные стихотворение в транскрипции, обозначьте мелодию и ударения.

O friend unseen, unborn, unknown,

Student of our sweet English tongue

Read out my words as night along:

I was a poet; I was young.

4. Напишите данные стихотворение в транскрипции, обозначьте мелодии и ударения.

The sun has set,

And now anew

With fallen dew

The grass is wet.

Each little bird

Has sunk to rest,

Within its nest

No song is heard.

5. Напишите данные стихотворение в транскрипции, обозначьте мелодию и ударения.

There was an old man of Khartoum,

Who kept two black sheep in his room

«To remind me», he said,

«Of someone who is dead».

But he never would tell us of whom.



6. Напишите данные стихотворение в транскрипции, обозначьте мелодию и ударения.

The British Isles consist of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland and many small islands chiefly to be found in the west. The total area is about 120,000 square miles, i.e. one thirty of the size of Europe.

The west coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the east coast by the North Sea and the south coast by the English Channel.

7. Запишите следующий диалог в транскрипции, обозначьте мелодию и ударения. Сделайте к нему тонограмму.

А: It’s Tom’s birthday tomorrow. What shall we give him?

В: As he likes fishing, we could give him a fishing rod.

А: We gave him one last year.

В: Oh yes. Well, he also likes reading. Why not to give him a book?

А: Yes, he likes thrillers$ let’s give him a new thriller.




Test 2

1. Does an initial parenthesis usually form a separate intonation group?



  1. never

  2. yes

  3. no

2. Match the spare (лишнее) word

    1. tempo

    2. pitch

    3. intonation

3. Semantically and grammatically incomplete sentences are usually pronounced with ... intonation

      1. rising

      2. mid-level

      3. falling

4. The falling tone is marked with

        1. |

        2. /

        3. \

5. With what intonation do we usually pronounce the words "generally", "occasionally", "gradually", "personally" and so on

          1. falling

          2. rising

          3. falling-rising

6. What is the usual tone for reporting phrases in english

            1. rising

            2. middle

            3. falling

7. What grammatical phenomena require Low Rise?

              1. adverbial phrase

              2. parenthesis

              3. enumeration

8. What component of the intonation group is the most important

                1. the nucleus

                2. the tail

                3. the head

9. Name the component of intonation

                  1. pitch

                  2. loudness

                  3. intonation-group

10. Initial parenthesis is placed ...

                  1. in the middle of the sentence

                  2. in the end of the sentence

                  3. in the beginning of the sentence

11. How many types of head are there in English language?

                  1. 1

                  2. 5

                  3. 3

12. What does this sign mean [↑]?

                  1. low rise

                  2. rising intonation

                  3. accidental rise

13. Which segment of the intonation group stretches from the first stressed syllable to the nucleus tone

                  1. the head

                  2. the nucleus

                  3. the pre-head

14. Translate into russian the word "utterance"

                  1. речь

                  2. высказывание

                  3. синтагма

15. The constitutive function of intonation serves to ...

                  1. to express emotions

                  2. to build up sentences

                  3. make the conversation more clear

16. Translate into russina the word "HEAD"

                  1. уровень

                  2. голова

                  3. шкала

17. Translate into russian the word "quoted speech"

                  1. вводная конструкция

                  2. прямая речь

                  3. косвенная речь

18. The rising tone is marked with

                  1. \

                  2. /

                  3. |

19. Final parenthesis is palced ...

                  1. in the beginning of the sentence

                  2. in the middle of the sentence

                  3. in the end of the sentence

20. Translate into russian the word "parenthesis"

                  1. вводное слово

                  2. антитеза

                  3. парантеза

21. How many types of nuclei are there in English language

                  1. 4

                  2. 8

                  3. 6

22. What is the last segment of a complete intonation group

                  1. the pre-tail

                  2. the tail

                  3. the pre-head

  • 23. Semantically and grammatically complete sentences are usually pronounced with .... intonation

  1. rising

  2. falling

  3. mid-level

24. Translate into russian the word "intonation-group"

    1. парадигма

    2. синтагма

    3. интонограмма

25. Translate into russian the word "reporting phrase"

      1. фраза, вводящая прямую речь

      2. вводная фраза

      3. фраза репортера

26. How many types of ascending head are there in English language

        1. 3

        2. 1

        3. 2

27. The stressed syllable is marked with

          1. \

          2. /

          3. |

28. What segment of an intonation-group does the final reporting phrase form

            1. the tail

            2. the pre-nucleus

            3. the nucleus

29. How many types of descending head are there in English language

              1. 4

              2. 2

              3. 5

30. How many types of middle-level head are there in English language

                1. 1

                2. 2

                3. 3


ЛИТЕРАТУРА

  1. Карневская Е.Б., Раковская Л.Д., Мисуно Е.А., Кузьмицкая З.В. Практическая фонетика английского языка: Учебник - 11-е издание Издательство: Вышэйшая школа, 2012 г. 366 стр.

  2. Колыхалова О.А., Махмурян К.С. Учитесь говорить по-английски: Фонетический практикум. - М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 1998. 232 с.

  3. Лукина Н.Д. Практический курс фонетики английского языка: Учеб. пособие для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2003. – 272 с.

  4. Меркулова Е.М. Английский язык для студентов университетов. Введение в курс фонетики. – СПб.: Издательство Союз, 2000.

  5. Практическая фонетика английского языка: Учебник для факультетов англ. яз. пед. ин-тов. / Под ред. М.А.Соколова, К.П.Гинтовт, Л.А.Кантер и др. – М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 1997. – 384 с.

  6. Практический курс английского языка: 1 курс: Учеб. для студ. высш. учеб. заведений / Под ред. В.Д. Аракина. – М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2002.- с.

  7. Connor J.D., Fletcher C. Sounds English. – Longman Group UK Limited, 1989.

  8. Hancock M. English Pronunciation in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

  9. Kelly G. How to teach pronunciation. Pearson Education Limited, 2002.


ГЛОССАРИЙ

Интонация. Под интонацией понимаются изменения в высоте основного тона, силе, темпе и тембре произнесения.

Логическое ударение -- это особое средство выделения какого-либо слова, используемого в качестве интонационного средства противопоставления или усиления. Слово с логическим ударением приобретает значения «именно это, а не то», «именно такой, а не другой» и т. д. Ударение на слове с логическим ударением оказывается настолько сильным, что все стоящие за ним слова до самого конца синтагмы оказываются безударными.

Синтагмой называется относительно законченный по смыслу отрезок предложения. Синтагма может состоять из одного слова или из группы слов.

Связующее г (linking r). Если за словом, оканчивающимся на согласную букву r следует слово, начинающееся с гласного звука, то на стыке слов звучит согласный [r], который носит название связующий r. Если эти слова разделены паузой, то связующее r исчезает.

Фразовое ударение выделяет одни слова в предложении от других. В предложении, как правило, ударны знаменательные слова (существительные, смысловые глаголы, прилагательные, наречия, числительные, вопросительные местоимения, указательные местоимения в роли подлежащего, притяжательные местоимения в абсолютной форме). Безударны обычно служебные слова (вспомогательные и модальные глаголы, если с них не начинается предложение, союзы, артикли, частицы и большинство местоимений).
Каталог: docs
docs -> Списочный состав врачей гбу рс (Я) «Детская стоматологическая поликлиника» по состоянию на 15. 08. 2016 г
docs -> Специальность 060105. 65 Стоматология Аннотация рабочей программы учебной дисциплины дс. Ф. 2 «Терапевтическая стоматология» Целью изучения дисциплины «Терапевтическая стоматология»
docs -> Восстановительная и пластическая хирургия челюстно-лицевой области А. М. Панин
docs -> Учебный план «Стоматологическая помощь населению»
docs -> Стоматологический центр
docs -> «Гигиена полости рта»
docs -> Идеальная гигиена полости рта
docs -> Методика разработки норм времени и нагрузки медицинского персонала


Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:
1   ...   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22


База данных защищена авторским правом ©stomatologo.ru 2017
обратиться к администрации

    Главная страница